• Christine M. Bucks
  • Peter D. Katsikis*
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 633)

1 Introduction

Nearly 40 years ago a theory was put forth postulating that an immune cell must receive two signals during activation to discriminate self- from nonself-antigen. One signal must be through an antigen-specific receptor and the second signal must be through a costimulatory receptor which would indicate that the antigen was indeed foreign and that a response was required. This theory came to be known as the two-signal theory and was long accepted as a key paradigm of immunology. Since its inception, it has sparked a wildfire of research in pursuit of the identification and characterization of such second signal molecules. Today, more than ten costimulatory signals have been identified, both stimulatory and inhibitory, and a multiple signal model has replaced the oversimplified two-signal theory. Here, we will provide an introduction to the members of the classical CD28 family, with a primary focus on CD28. We will review the function of classical CD28 costimulation in the...


Costimulatory Molecule Vesicular Stomatitis Virus CD28 Signaling Double Positive CD28 Costimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by NIH grants R01 AI66215, R01 AI46719, and R01 AI62437 from the National Institutes of Health awarded to PDK.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine M. Bucks
    • 1
  • Peter D. Katsikis*
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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