Onsite Testing for Arsenic: Field Test Kits
Arsenic, a widely distributed element, is toxic and carcinogenic. It occurs naturally at readily detectable concentrations in soils and sediments and can contaminate freshwater and biota. Additionally, anthropogenic influences from mining, leather and glass production, and the use of pesticides, including wood preservatives, can contribute to environmental contamination by arsenic.
Arsenic derives from various sources, has a highly diverse distribution pattern, and has a rather complex environmental behavior resulting from its tendency to transform into different species, each of which has different mobility and toxicity. The variable distribution of arsenic creates challenges when arranging sampling programs adequate to establish an accurate picture of the true status of arsenic as an environmental contaminant. Even when reliable sampling is achieved, success still depends on accomplishing rapid onsite sample analysis at an acceptable cost. In recent years, the main...
KeywordsInductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry Arsenic Concentration Electrochemical Sensor Arsenic Species Arsenic Content
- Abbgy A, Kelly T, Lawrie C, Riggs K (2002) NanoBand Explorer Portable water Analyzer. ETV Report. http://www.epa.gov/etv/pdfs/vrvs/01_vr_nano-band.pdf
- BRAC: Combating a Deadly Menace (2000) Early Experiments with a Community-based Arsenic Mitigation Project, Bangladesh. Research Monograph Ser. No. 16, Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
- Cavicchioli A, La Scalea MA, Gutz IGR (2004) Analysis and speciation of traces of arsenic in environmental food and industrial samples by voltammetry: a review. Electrophoresis 16:697–711.Google Scholar
- CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (2003) Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. http://www.ccme.ca/publications/pubs_updates.html.
- Chowdhury AQ (2002) International Workshop on Arsenic Mitigation. Local Government Division, Ministry of Local Government, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Jan. 14–16, 2002.Google Scholar
- Deshpande LS, Pande SP (2005) Development of arsenic testing field kit: a tool for rapid on-site screening of arsenic contaminated water sources. Environ Monit Assess 101:93–101.Google Scholar
- DPHE-UNICEF (2001) Monthly Progress Report. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Dec. 2001.Google Scholar
- Dräger Safety (2006) In: AFC International, Inc. Your Gas Detection Instrumentation http://www.afcintl.com/pdf/draeger/CH25001.pdf
- ESCAP–UNICEF–WHO (2001) Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Geology and Health: Solving the Arsenic Crisis in the Asia Pacific Region: ESCAP–UNICEF–WHO Expert Group Meeting, Bangkok, May 2–4, 2001.Google Scholar
- Fact Sheet 12 on Arsenic (2002) A Disaster. Forum Publishing, Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
- Gastec Corporations (2007) http://www.zefon.com/analytical/download/19la.pdf.
- Gutzeit H (1891) Pharm Zeitung 36:748–756.Google Scholar
- Krupp EM, Johnson C, Rechsteiner C, Moir M, Leong D, Feldmann J (2007) Investigation into the determination of trimethylarsine in natural gas and its partitioning into gas and condensate phases using (cryotrapping)/gas chromatography coupled to inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and liquid/solid sorption techniques. Spectrochim Acta B 62:970–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jalil MA, Feroz AM (2003) Arsenic detection and measurements by field test kits. In: Feroz AM (ed) Arsenic Contamination: Bangladesh Perspectives. ITN-Bangladesh, Center for Water Supply and Waste Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, p. 442.Google Scholar
- MTI Diagnostic (2005) Evaluation of the MTI OVA 5000 for continuous arsenic monitoring at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. http://www.mtidiagnstics.com/case_studies.html.
- National Food Authority (1993) Australian Food Standard Code. Australian Government Publication Service, Canberra.Google Scholar
- NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation (2002) Dhaka, Bangladesh, Jan. 2002.Google Scholar
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (1994) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM®), Schlecht PC, O'Connor PF (eds) 4th Ed. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113, August, 1994.Google Scholar
- Raham MM, Fujinaga K, Seike Y, Okumura M (2004) A simple in situ visual and tristimulus colorimetric method for the determination of trace arsenic in environmental water after its collection on a mercury(II)-impregnated paper. Anal Sci 20(1):165–170.Google Scholar
- Rahman MM, Mukherjee D, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Roy S, Selim M, Quamruzzaman Q, Milton AH, Shahidullah SM, Rahman MT, Chakraborti D (2002) Effectiveness and reliability of arsenic field testing kits: are the million dollar screening projects effective or not? Environ Sci Technol 6(24):5385–5394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rowe JJ, Fournier RO, Morey GW (1973) Chemical analysis of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1960–1965. Geol Surv Bull (US) 1973:1303–1334.Google Scholar
- Spear JM, Zhou Y, Cole CA, Xie YFF (2006) Evaluation of arsenic test kits for drinking water analysis. J Am Water Works Assoc 98(12):97–105.Google Scholar
- USDA (2006) Foreign Agricultural Service Global Agriculture Information Network Report CH6064. China Peoples Republic: of FAIRS Product Specific Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods.Google Scholar
- US EPA (2006) ETV Joint Verification Statement (US EPA, Battelle). Arsenic Test Kits. http://www.epa.gov/etv/verifications/vcenter1-21.html.
- Visser WJF (1993) Contaminated land policies in some industrialized countries. TCB R02, Technische Commissie Bodembescherrning, Den Haag.Google Scholar
- WHO (1993) Arsenic in Drinking Water. Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar