RNA Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

  • Daniel Martins de Souza
  • Emmanuel Dias-Neto


The deciphering of the human genome and the advances in transcriptome interrogation approaches and transformed RNA biomarkers make important promises for the understanding and management of psychiatric diseases. In this chapter we describe the techniques more widely used for gene expression analysis and present the main findings in the search for RNA biomarkers in schizophrenia such as the recurrent observation of alterations in genes that encode proteins involved in pathways related to myelinization, synapses, and energy metabolism. We also discuss the main findings resultant from peripheral blood cell studies and present new techniques and new sources of RNA biomarkers for the future of research in schizophrenia.


Peripheral Blood Cell Neuropsychiatric Disease Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Stanley Neuropathology Consortium Double Stranded cDNA Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Alternative splicing


Dopamine receptor 2


Long isoform of dopamine receptor 2


Short isoform of dopamine receptor 2


Dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex




Expressed sequence tags


United States Food and Drug Administration


Gamma-amino butyric acid — A


Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein Go-alpha


Metabotropic glutamate receptors




Neural cell adhesion molecule


Noncoding RNA


N-methyl-D-aspartic acid


Pre-frontal cortex


Pre-synaptic function


Quantitative polymerase chain reaction


Serial analysis of gene expression






peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase — short-chain dehydrogenase


peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase — long-chain dehydrogenase


acetyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase 2




adenylosuccinate synthetase


citrate lyase, alkylglycerone phosphate synthase


glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA2


catalytic polypeptide-like apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme 3B


ataxia telangiectasia mutated


synthase mitochondrial F1 complex alpha


antizyme inhibitor


cell translocation gene 1, antiproliferative


calmodulin 3




Charcot-Leyden crystal protein


claudin 11; oligodendrocyte specific protein


2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′ phosphodiesterase


carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1


carnitine palmitoyltransferases 2




alpha catenin


chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1


cytochrome P450 family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1


death-associated transcription factor 1


dual specificity phosphatase 6


ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphoprotein 50


endothelial differentiation gene 2




v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)


v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene


growth-associated protein-43


glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2


glycogen synthase kinase 3 α




class II, DR β 1


heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3


myelin-associated glycoprotein


T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein


myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate


myc-associated zinc finger protein


malate dehydrogenase 1


myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein


mitochondrial complex I 75-kDa subunit


neuropeptide Y


neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 gene


neuregulin 1


N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor


ornithine aminotransferase


3-oxoacid CoA transferase


pyruvate dehydrogenase


PDZ and LIM domain 5 ()


muscle pyruvate kinase


plasmolipin or transmembrane 4 superfamily 11


proteolipid protein


quaking homolog


RAB3C, member RAS oncogene family

S100A9 S100

calcium binding protein A9


superior cervical ganglia-10


selenium-binding protein 1




splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 1


sensory motor neuron derived factor


synapsin 2


synaptojanin 1


MAX-like protein X




translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17


tumor necrosis factor receptor 2


ubiquitin C-terminal esterase L1


ubiquitin-specific protease 14


tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide



The authors thank ABADHS (Associação Beneficente Alzira Denise Hertzog Silva), FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo — Brazil), CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas) and DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) for their fundamental support of our research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Martins de Souza
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Dias-Neto
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratório de Neurociências (LIM-27), Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)Brazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Proteômica, Dept. de Bioquímica, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)Brazil
  3. 3.MD Anderson Cancer CenterUniversity of TexasHoustonUSA

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