Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

  • Albert Wong
  • Laura Feldcamp


Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder presenting as episodes of psychosis against the background of cognitive, social, and functional impairments. Schizophrenia has been studied extensively, and a large number of biological abnormalities associated with the disorder have been described. Many of these abnormalities have been proposed as biomarkers, some of which may represent useful endophenotypes for dissecting the etiology or pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The main molecular, electrophysiological, imaging, and psychological features of schizophrenia are described, with a critical evaluation of their utility as diagnostic and endophenotypic biomarkers. While none of these biomarkers are useful at present for clinical diagnosis, they may identify subgroups of schizophrenia or represent dimensions of the illness that can be subject to further study. With the recent identification of several promising candidate susceptibility genes, models of pathophysiology can now be generated to integrate this diverse collection of abnormalities from the molecular level of description with that of abnormal psychology.


Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Schizophrenic Patient Antipsychotic Medication Axon Initial Segment Functional Brain Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Brain derived neurotrophic factor


Also known as nitric oxide synthase 1(neuronal) adaptor protein (NOS1AP)


Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7


Cortical inhibition


Central nervous system




Cerebrospinal fluid




Disrupted in schizophrenia 1


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex


Dysbindin-1, dystrobrevin-binding protein 1


Epidermal growth factor


Epsin-related protein, clathrin interactor 1


Epidermal growth factor receptor


Event-related potential


Functional MRI


D-amino acid oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase activator






67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase


Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 3


Gamma synchrony






Interferon gamma




Mismatch negativity


Magnetic resonance imaging


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Neuregulin 1


Positron emission tomography


Prefrontal cortex


Prepulse inhibition


Protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), catalytic subunit, gamma isoform


Proline dehydrogenase (proline oxidase)


Regulator of G-protein signaling 4


Selenium binding protein 1


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Single positron emission computed tomography


Trace amine associated receptor 6


Transcranial magnetic stimulation


Tumour necrosis factor alpha


Theory of mind



AHCW is supported by a Clinician-Scientist Fellowship from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

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