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Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

  • Albert Wong
  • Laura Feldcamp
Chapter

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder presenting as episodes of psychosis against the background of cognitive, social, and functional impairments. Schizophrenia has been studied extensively, and a large number of biological abnormalities associated with the disorder have been described. Many of these abnormalities have been proposed as biomarkers, some of which may represent useful endophenotypes for dissecting the etiology or pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The main molecular, electrophysiological, imaging, and psychological features of schizophrenia are described, with a critical evaluation of their utility as diagnostic and endophenotypic biomarkers. While none of these biomarkers are useful at present for clinical diagnosis, they may identify subgroups of schizophrenia or represent dimensions of the illness that can be subject to further study. With the recent identification of several promising candidate susceptibility genes, models of pathophysiology can now be generated to integrate this diverse collection of abnormalities from the molecular level of description with that of abnormal psychology.

Keywords

Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Schizophrenic Patient Antipsychotic Medication Axon Initial Segment Functional Brain Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AS

Antisaccade

BDNF

Brain derived neurotrophic factor

CAPON

Also known as nitric oxide synthase 1(neuronal) adaptor protein (NOS1AP)

CHRNA7

Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7

CI

Cortical inhibition

CNS

Central nervous system

COMT

Catechol-o-methyltransferase

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CT

Catscan

DISC1

Disrupted in schizophrenia 1

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DPFC

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

DTNBP1

Dysbindin-1, dystrobrevin-binding protein 1

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EPN4

Epsin-related protein, clathrin interactor 1

ErbB

Epidermal growth factor receptor

ERP

Event-related potential

fMRI

Functional MRI

G72

D-amino acid oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase activator

DOA

DAOA

GABA

γ-Aminobutyrate

GAD67

67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase

GRM3

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 3

GS

Gamma synchrony

IBZM

Iodobenzamide

IL

Interleukin

INFγ

Interferon gamma

MEG

Magnetoencephalography

MMN

Mismatch negativity

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

NRG1

Neuregulin 1

PET

Positron emission tomography

PFC

Prefrontal cortex

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

PPP3C

Protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), catalytic subunit, gamma isoform

PRODH

Proline dehydrogenase (proline oxidase)

RGS4

Regulator of G-protein signaling 4

SELENBP1

Selenium binding protein 1

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SPECT

Single positron emission computed tomography

TAAR6

Trace amine associated receptor 6

TMS

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

TNFα

Tumour necrosis factor alpha

TOM

Theory of mind

Notes

Acknowledgments

AHCW is supported by a Clinician-Scientist Fellowship from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

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