Biomarkers for the Development of Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Drugs

  • Marcus Ising
  • Florian Holsboer


Depression and anxiety disorders are by far the most prevalent mental disorders. Even though current treatments are effective overall, a large number of patients treated with antidepressants do not benefit sufficiently from therapy. To improve this unsatisfactory situation, drugs with a diverse profile of action are required to provide a more specific treatment to patients not sufficiently responding to standard therapy. Biomarkers sensitive for drug action are the ideal tools to identify compounds with a specific profile of action at an early stage of drug development. This chapter summarizes the suitability of neuroendocrine tests, sleep and other EEG markers, imaging techniques, gene expression, and protein markers for serving as clinical biomarkers in depression and anxiety, and discusses their potential for improving drug discovery and development.


Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Antidepressant Treatment Corticotropin Release Hormone Antidepressant Treatment Outcome Neuroendocrine Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of abbreviations


Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor






Corticotropin releasing hormone


Cerebrospinal fluid




Combined dexamethasone/CRH test


Dexamethasone suppression test








Functional magnetic resonance imaging


Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A


Growth hormone


Growth hormone releasing hormone


Glyoxalase 1


Histamine 1 receptor






Serotonin 2, 3 receptors


Insuline-like growth factor 1


Munich Antidepressant Response Signature project


Positron emission tomography




Rapid eye movement


Single photon emission computed tomography






Thyreotropin-releasing hormone


Thyroidea-stimulating hormone


World Health Organisation


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute of PsychiatryMunichGermany

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