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Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

  • Heike Tost
  • Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Chapter

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable and devastating mental disorder with a complex genetic architecture. The combination of multimodal neuroimaging with genetic mapping techniques and the subsequent assessment of genomic variation (“imaging genetics”) has recently proved to be exceptionally powerful in advancing our understanding of the neural underpinnings of normal cognition and mental disease states. This upcoming research field has opened doors to a previously inaccessible level of both biological characterization and the validation of schizophrenia risk gene effects. This chapter reviews the current scientific knowledge on neuroimaging biomarkers in schizophrenia and illustrates the major conceptual change in the way in which biological intermediate phenotypes are viewed and pursued in psychiatry today.

Keywords

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Atypical Antipsychotic Schizophrenia Patient Gray Matter Volume Work Memory Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACG

Anterior cingulate gyrus

BOLD

Blood oxygen level dependent

CD–CV

Common disease–common variant

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

CPT

Continuous performance test

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CSTC

Cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical

DA

Dopamine

DARPP32

Dopamine and cyclic AMP regulated phosphoprotein

DISC1

Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1

DLPFC

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

DTNBP1

Dysbindin 1

EPS

Extrapyramidal side effects

FEF

Frontal eye fields

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GM

Gray matter

GRM-3

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3

HLP

Haloperidol

1H-MRSI

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

5-HTT

Serotonin transporter promoter

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

NAA

N-acetyl-aspartate

NRG1

Neuroregulin 1

PET

Positron emission tomography

PFC

Prefrontal cortex

PPC

Posterior-parietal cortex

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

PPP1R1B

Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1B

SMA

Supplementary motor area

STG

Superior temporal gyrus

VBM

Voxel-based morphometry

V5/hMT

Motion-sensitive visual Processing area

VLPFC

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

WM

White matter

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Shabnam Hakimi for helpful comments on the manuscript.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Brain Disorders BranchGenes, Cognition, and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892USA

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