Genomic and Geographic Origins of Timothy (Phleum sp.) Based on ITS and Chloroplast Sequences

  • Alan V. Stewart
  • Andrzej Joachimiak
  • Nick Ellison


The relationship among members of the subgenus Phleum was determined using nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences. This subgenus is derived from a progenitor of the diploid Phleum alpinum subsp. rhaeticum. The relationships provide evidence of migration, hybridization, polyploidy and speciation associated with historical glaciations.

The subgenus Phleum represents one enormous germplasm pool for breeders and it should now be possible to re-synthesize hexaploid pratense from a wider range of diploid forms than occurred historically. This requires the urgent collection of genetic resources from the centers of diversity within glacial refugia as these resources are almost entirely absent from genebanks.


Molecular Form Glacial Refugium Centromeric Heterochromatin Carpathian Mountain Tetraploid Hybrid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan V. Stewart
    • 1
  • Andrzej Joachimiak
    • 2
  • Nick Ellison
    • 3
  1. 1.PGG Wrightson SeedsLincolnNew Zealand
  2. 2.Institute of BotanyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  3. 3.AgResearchPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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