Fungal Endophytes in Lolium and Festuca Species
The epichloë endophytes (fungal genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium) are symbionts of many temperate pasture grasses, and are particularly important in Festuca and Lolium species. Many epichloae are known to protect host grasses against a wide range of insects, but some of the anti-insect alkaloids that they produce can negatively affect the health and reproduction of livestock. Here I review the evolutionary relationships and origins of Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, and what is known of the biosynthetic pathways and genetics of protective alkaloids that they produce.
KeywordsTall Fescue Perennial Ryegrass Ergot Alkaloid Fungal Endophyte Lysergic Acid
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