Advertisement

Functional Genomics of Forage and Bioenergy Quality Traits in the Grasses

  • Iain S. Donnison
  • Kerrie Farrar
  • Gordon G. Allison
  • Edward Hodgson
  • Jessic Adams
  • Robert Hatch
  • Joe A. Gallagher
  • Paul R. Robson
  • John C. Clifton-Brown
  • Phillip Morris

Abstract.

Biomass from forage and energy crops can provide a renewable source of meat, milk, and wool, or power, heat, transport fuels and platform chemicals, respectively. Whilst in forage grasses some improvements have been made, the potential of energy grasses is limited because plant varieties have not yet been selected for this purpose. There are distinct challenges to determine and improve quality traits which increase ultimate energy yield but experience from forage crops can help. Energy grasses offer the potential to be utilised through either thermal or biological conversion methods with the route chosen being largely determined by the calorific value, moisture content and the ratio of soluble to structural carbohydrates. Plant chemical composition underlies these characteristics, for example whichever way grass feedstocks are converted the major determinates of energy are lignin, cell wall phenolics and the soluble and cell wall carbohydrates. These components affect the efficiency of the energy conversion process to meat, milk, wool, energy, platform chemicals and the end quality of certain liquid fuels such as pyrolysis oils. To associate phenotype to genotype for such underlying chemical composition, it is necessary to develop both DNA based molecular markers and high throughput methods for compositional analysis. The genetic resources available in forage and energy grasses are limited in comparison with several model grasses including maize and for some traits it may be appropriate to work initially on such a model and then translate this research back to the forage or bioenergy crop. However not all traits will be present in the model, and so genetic and genomic resources are and will have to be developed in the crops themselves. As part of the EU project GRASP, SNP based markers have been developed in carbohydrate associated genes which map to soluble carbohydrate QTL in Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and these have been used in association studies in a synthetic population of L. perenne to measure allele shifts. High throughput calibration models have been developed using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the mid-infrared spectral range which allow accurate predictions of a number of composition traits including lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents in several forage and energy grasses including Miscanthus, L. perenne and related species. These calibrations have allowed a comparison of chemical composition from different grass genotypes, species and environments. Both tools and genetic resources for the optimisation of biomass as forage and energy feedstocks are therefore being developed to enable association of phenotype with genotype.

Keywords

Quantitative Trait Locus Perennial Ryegrass Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library Energy Crop Forage Grass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstead , IPTurner LB, King IP, Cairns AJ, Humphreys MO (2002) Comparison and integration of genetic maps generated from F2. and BC1-type mapping populations in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Plant Breed 121: 501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martin A (2003a) Influencing combustion quality in Miscanthus sinensis. Anderss.: identification of QTLs for calcium, phosphorus and sulphur content Plant Breed 122: 141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martin A (2003b) Identification of QTLs influencing combustion quality in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. II. Chlorine and potassium content. Theor Appl Genet 107: 857–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bridgeman TG, Darvell LI, Jones JM, Williams PT, Fahmi R, Bridgwater AV, Barraclough T, Shield I, Thain SC, Donnison IS (2007) Influence of particle size on the analytical and chemical properties of two energy crops. Fuel 86: 60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buanafina MMde O, Langdon T, Hauck BD, Dalton SJ, Morris P (2006) Manipulating the phenolic acid content and digestibility of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) by vacuolar targeted expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase Appl Biochem Biotech 130: 415–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen LM, Carpita NC, Reiter WD, Wilson RH, Jeffries C, McCann MC (1998) A rapid method to screen for cell-wall mutants using discriminant analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. Plant J 16: 385–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Clifton-Brown JC, Lewandowski I (2000) European Miscanthus improvement (FAIR3 CT- 96-1392). Final report, Chapter 9. Mapping the most suitable climatic zones for different Miscanthus genotypes in EuropeUniversity of Hohenheim, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  8. Clifton-Brown JC, Lewandowski I, Andersson B, Basch G, Christian DC, Kjeldsen JB, Jorgensen U, Mortensen JV, Riche AB, Schwarz KU, Tayebi K, Teixeira F (2001) Performance of 15 Miscanthus genotypes at five sites in Europe Agron J 93: 1013–1019Google Scholar
  9. Clifton-Brown JC, Stampfl P, Jones MB (2004) Miscanthus biomass production for energy in Europe and its potential contribution to decreasing fossil fuel carbon emissions Global Change Biol 10: 509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cogan NOI, Smith KF, Yamada T, Francki MG, Vecchies AC, Jones ES, Spangenberg GC, Forster JW (2005) QTL analysis and comparative genomics of herbage traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Theor Appl Genet 110: 364–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Donnison IS, Gay AP, Thomas H, Edwards KJ, Edwards D, James CL, Thomas AM, Ougham HJ (2007) Modification of nitrogen remobilisation, grain fill and leaf senescence in maize (Zea mays L.). by transposon insertional mutagenesis in a protease gene New Phytol 173: 481–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Edwards D, Coghill J, Batley J, Holdsworth M, Edwards KJ (2002) Amplification and detection of transposon insertion flanking sequences using fluorescent MuAFLP. Biotechniques 32: 1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fahmi R, Bridgwater AV, Darvell LI, Jones JM, Yates N, Thain S, Donnison I (2007a) The effect of alkali metals on combustion and pyrolysis of Lolium and Festuca grasses, switchgrass and willow Fuel 86: 1560–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fahmi R, Bridgwater AV, Thain SC, Donnison IS, Morris PM, Yates N (2007b) Prediction of lignin and lignin thermal degradation products by py-gcms in a collection of Lolium and Festuca grasses J Anal Appl Pyrol 80: 16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farrar K, Donnison IS (2007) Construction and screening of BAC libraries made from Brachypodium genomic DNA Nat Protocols 2: 1661–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farrar K, Asp T, Lübberstedt T, Xu M, Thomas A, Christiansen C, Humphreys M, Donnison I (2007) Construction of two Lolium perenne BAC libraries and identification of BACs containing candidate genes for disease resistance and forage quality. Mol Breed 19: 15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frey M, Stettner C, Gierl A (1998) A general method for gene isolation in tagging approaches: amplification of insertion mutagenised sites (AIMS). Plant J 13: 717–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gallagher JA, Cairns AJ, Pollock CJ (2004) Cloning and characterization of a putative fructosyltransferase and two putative invertase genes from the temperate grass Lolium temulentum L. J Exp Bot 55: 557–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gan S, Amasino RM (1995) Inhibition of leaf senescence by autoregulated production of cytokinin. Science 270: 1986–1988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Griffiths CM, Hosken SE, Oliver D, Chojecki J, Thomas H (1997) Sequencing, expression pattern and RFLP mapping of a senescence-enhanced cDNA from Zea mays with high homology to oryzain and aleurain. Plant Mol Biol 34: 815–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hodgson EM, Clifton-Brown J, Lister S, Donnison I (2007) Development of a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibration (NIRS) for the determination of cell wall composition of Miscanthus. Proceedings of the 15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin 7–11 May, 2007Google Scholar
  22. Jensen LB, Aarens P, Andersen CH, Holm PB, Ghesquiere M, Julier B, Lübberstedt T, Muylle H, Nielsen KK, de Riek J, Roldán-Ruiz I, Roulund N, Taylor C, Vosman B, Barre P (2005) Development and mapping of a public reference set of SSR markers in Lolium perenne L. Mol Eco Notes 5: 951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jones ES, Mahoney NL, Hayward MD, Armstead IP, Jones JG, Humphreys MO, King IP, Kishida T, Yamada T, Balfourier F, Charmet G, Forster JW (2002) An enhanced molecular marker based genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) reveals comparative relationships with other Poaceae genomes. Genome 45: 282–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kacurakova M, Capek P, Sasinkova V, Wellner N, Ebringerova A (2000) FT-IR study of plant cell wall model compounds: pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses. Carbohydr Polym 43: 195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. King J, Armstead IP, Donnison IS, Thomas HM, Jones RN, Kearsey MJ, Roberts LA, Thomas A, Morgan WG, King IP (2002) Physical and genetic mapping in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis. Genetics 161: 315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Landau S, Glasser T, Dvash L (2006) Monitoring nutrition in small ruminants with the aid of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology: a review. Small Rumin Res 61: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li Q, Bettany AJE, Donnison I, Griffiths CM, Thomas H, Scott IM (2000) Characterisation of a cysteine protease cDNA from Lolium multiflorum leaves and its expression during senescence and cytokinin treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta 1492: 233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Li Q, Robson PRH, Bettany AJE, Donnison IS, Thomas H, Scott IM (2004) Modification of senescence in ryegrass transformed with IPT under the control of a monocot senescence-enhanced promoter. Plant Cell Rep 22: 816–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lübberstedt T, Andreasen BS, Holm PB (2003) Development of ryegrass allele-specific (GRASP) markers for sustainable grassland improvement – a new framework V project. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 39: 125–128Google Scholar
  30. Mähnert P, Heiermann M, Linke B (2005) Batch- and semi-continuous biogas production from different grass species. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript EE 05 010, vol. VIIGoogle Scholar
  31. Marques G, Gutierrez A, del Rio JC (2007) Chemical characterization of lignin and lipophilic fractions from leaf fibers of curaua (Ananas erectifolius. ) J Agric Food Chem 55: 1327–1336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin A, Belastegui-Macadam X, Quilleré I, Floriot M, Valadier M-H, Pommel B, Andrieu B, Donnison I, Hirel B (2005) Physiological and molecular characterization of the stay-green phenotype in a maize hybrid. New Phytol 167: 483–492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Martínez-Pérez N, Cherryman SJ, Premier GC, Dinsdale RM, Hawkes DL, Hawkes FR, Kyazze G (2007) The potential for hydrogen-enriched biogas production from crops: Scenarios in the UK. Biomass Bioenergy 31: 95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mouille G, Robin S, Lecomte M, Pagant S, Hofte H (2003) Classification and identification of Arabidopsis cell wall mutants using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrocopy. Plant J 35: 393–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Powlson DS, Riche AB, Shield I (2005) Biofuels and other approaches for decreasing fossil fuel emissions from agriculture. Ann Appl Biol 146: 193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Robertson DS (1978) Characterization of a Mutator system in maize. Mutat Res 51: 21–28Google Scholar
  37. Robson PRH, Donnison IS, Wang K, Frame B, Pegg SE, Thomas A, Thomas H (2004) Leaf senescence is delayed in maize expressing the Agrobacterium IPT gene under the control of a novel maize senescence-enhanced promoter. Plant Biotech J 2: 101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smart CM, Hosken SE, Thomas H, Greaves JA, Blair BG, Schuch W (1995) The timing of maize leaf senescence and characterization of senescence-related cDNAs. Physiol Plant 93: 673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stewart D (1997) Application of Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies to plant science. Rec Adv Food Agric Chem 1: 171–193Google Scholar
  40. Thomas H, Evans C, Thomas HM, Humphreys MW, Morgan G, Hauck B, Donnison IS (1997) Introgression, tagging and expression of a leaf senescence gene in FestuLolium. New Phytol 137: 29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Turner LB, Humphreys MO, Cairns AJ, Pollock CJ (2001) Comparison of growth and carbohydrate accumulation in seedlings of two varieties of Lolium perenne. J Plant Physiol 158: 891–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turner LB, Cairns AJ, Armstead IP, Ashton J, Skøt K, Whittaker D, Humphreys MO (2006) Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with quantitative trait locus mapping. New Phytol 169: 45–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Van Soest PJ (1963) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. J Assoc Off Agric Chem 46: 829–835Google Scholar
  44. Van Soest PJ (1974) Composition and nutritive value of forages. In: Heath ME, Metcalfe DS, Barnes RF (eds) Forages 3rdIowa State University Press, Ames, IA,pp. 53–63editionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iain S. Donnison
    • 1
  • Kerrie Farrar
    • 1
  • Gordon G. Allison
    • 1
  • Edward Hodgson
    • 1
  • Jessic Adams
    • 1
  • Robert Hatch
    • 1
  • Joe A. Gallagher
    • 1
  • Paul R. Robson
    • 1
  • John C. Clifton-Brown
    • 1
  • Phillip Morris
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Grassland and Environmental ResearchPlas GogerddanAberystwythUK

Personalised recommendations