Brain Metabolic Adaptations to Hypoxia

  • Michelle A. Puchowicz
  • Smruta S. Koppaka
  • Joseph C. LaManna


The mammalian brain depends totally on a continuous supply of oxygen to maintain its function. It is well known that in the brain, adaptation to hypoxia occurs through both systemic and vascular changes, which may include metabolic changes. However, the local metabolic changes related to energy metabolism that occur within the cell are not well described (Harik et al., 1994; Harik et al., 1995; LaManna and Harik, 1997). Investigating the metabolic adaptations of the central nervous system to mild hypoxia provides an understanding of the key components responsible for regulating cell survival. This chapter concerns itself with the metabolic responses of the brain to mild hypoxia, that is, to physiological hypoxia. This is the range of hypoxia that can be compensated for with physiological mechanisms that directly or indirectly involve energy related metabolic pathways.


Ketone Body Ketogenic Diet Hypoxic Exposure Severe Hypoxia Blood Flow Restriction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Constantinos Tsipis for his technical support in the art work and in the preparation of this review. This research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health, R01-NS38632 and P50 GM066309.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle A. Puchowicz
    • 1
  • Smruta S. Koppaka
    • 1
  • Joseph C. LaManna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyCase Western Reserve University, School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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