Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a Metabolic Encephalopathy

  • Vivienne Ann Russell

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000; Smalley, 1997). It affects 5–10% of children worldwide and persists through adolescence into adulthood in about half of the affected individuals (Faraone et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 2004; Adewuya and Famuyiwa, 2006). Children with ADHD are characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate, motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that results in impairment (failure at school) due to an inability to sit still, difficulty in organizing tasks, not remembering instructions, being easily distracted, fidgeting, difficulty with tasks that require sustained attention and risk-taking (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Sagvolden et al., 2005a; Thapar et al., 2007; Abikoff, et al., 2002). There is increasing recognition that ADHD is associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and...


Prefrontal Cortex Fractional Anisotropy Locus Coeruleus ADHD Symptom Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author wishes to thank the University of Cape Town and South African Medical Research Council for support.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivienne Ann Russell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape TownObservatorySouth Africa

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