Infectious and Inflammatory Metabolic Encephalopathies

Concepts in Pathogenesis
  • Kottil W. Rammohan


West Nile Virus Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Bacterial Meningitis Neuronal Apoptosis Measle Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Critical Care Medicine 1992; 20(6):864–874Google Scholar
  2. Barna M, Komatsu T, Reiss CS. Activation of type III nitric oxide synthase in astrocytes following a neurotropic viral infection. Virology 1996; 223(2):331–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bechtold DA, Kapoor R, Smith KJ. Axonal protection using flecainide in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Annals of Neurology 2004; 55(5):607–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bi Z, Quandt P, Komatsu T, Barna M, Reiss CS. IL-12 promotes enhanced recovery from vesicular stomatitis virus infection of the central nervous system. Journal of Immunology 1995; 155(12):5684–5689Google Scholar
  5. Calne RY. Immunosuppression in liver transplantation. The New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 331(17):1154–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clemmesen JO, Larsen FS, Kondrup J, Hansen BA, Ott P. Cerebral herniation in patients with acute liver failure is correlated with arterial ammonia concentration. Hepatology 1999; 29(3):648–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choppin PW, Richardson CD, Merz DC, Hall WW, Scheid A. The functions and inhibition of the membrane glycoproteins of paramyxoviruses and myxoviruses and the role of the measles virus M protein in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1981; 143(3):352–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dai X, Lercher LD, Clinton PM, Du Y, Livingston DL, Vieira C et al. The trophic role of oligodendrocytes in the basal forebrain. The Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2003; 23(13):5846–5853Google Scholar
  9. Dheen ST, Kaur C, Ling EA. Microglial activation and its implications in the brain diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2007; 14(11):1189–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eash S, Manley K, Gasparovic M, Querbes W, Atwood WJ. The human polyomaviruses. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2006; 63(7–8):865–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elizan TS, Maker H, Yahr MD. Neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes in experimental viral encephalitis. Journal of Neural Transmission 1983; 57(3):139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gosztonyi G, Ludwig H. Interactions of viral proteins with neurotransmitter receptors may protect or destroy neurons. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2001; 253:121–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gout O. Vaccinations and multiple sclerosis. Neurological Sciences 2001; 22(2):151–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffin DE. Neuronal cell death in alphavirus encephalomyelitis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 2005; 289:57–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall WW, Choppin PW. Evidence for lack of synthesis of the M polypeptide of measles virus in brain cells in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Virology 1979; 99(2):443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall WW, Choppin PW. Measles-virus proteins in the brain tissue of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: absence of the M protein. The New England Journal of Medicine 1981; 304(19):1152–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hou J, Major E. Management of infections by the human polyomavirus JC: past, present and future. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 2005; 3(4):629–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu WT, Willoughby REJ, Dhonau H, Mack KJ. Long-term follow-up after treatment of rabies by induction of coma. The New England Journal of Medicine 2007; 357(9):945–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jalan R, Williams R. The inflammatory basis of intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. Journal of Hepatology 2001; 34(6):940–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jalan R, Pollok A, Shah SHA, Madhavan K, Simpson KJ. Liver derived pro-inflammatory cytokines may be important in producing intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. Journal of Hepatology 2002; 37(4):536–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jan JT, Griffin DE. Induction of apoptosis by Sindbis virus occurs at cell entry and does not require virus replication. Journal of Virology 1999; 73(12):10296–10302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kapoor R, Davies M, Smith KJ. Temporary axonal conduction block and axonal loss in inflammatory neurological disease. A potential role for nitric oxide? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 893:304–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kapoor R, Davies M, Blaker PA, Hall SM, Smith KJ. Blockers of sodium and calcium entry protect axons from nitric oxide-mediated degeneration. Annals of Neurology 2003; 53(2):174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liao SL, Raung SL, Chen CJ. Japanese encephalitis virus stimulates superoxide dismutase activity in rat glial cultures. Neuroscience Letters 2002; 324(2):133–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lockhart BP, Tordo N, Tsiang H. Inhibition of rabies virus transcription in rat cortical neurons with the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 1992; 36(8):1750–1755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levine B, Huang Q, Isaacs JT, Reed JC, Griffin DE, Hardwick JM. Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene. Nature 1993; 361(6414):739–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lewis J, Wesselingh SL, Griffin DE, Hardwick JM. Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. Journal of virology 1996; 70(3):1828–1835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Menge T, Kieseier BC, Nessler S, Hemmer B, Hartung HP, Stuve O. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an acute hit against the brain. Current opinion in neurology 2007; 20(3):247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mishra MK, Koli P, Bhowmick S, Basu A. Neuroprotection conferred by astrocytes is insufficient to protect animals from succumbing to Japanese encephalitis. Neurochemistry international 2007; 50(5):764–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miura Y, Misawa N, Maeda N, Inagaki Y, Tanaka Y, Ito M et al. Critical contribution of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to apoptosis of human CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected hu-PBL-NOD-SCID mice. The journal of experimental medicine 2001; 193(5):651–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miura Y, Koyanagi Y, Mizusawa H. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces neuronal apoptosis in HIV-encephalopathy. Journal of medical and dental sciences 2003a; 50(1):17–25Google Scholar
  32. Miura Y, Misawa N, Kawano Y, Okada H, Inagaki Y, Yamamoto N et al. Tumor necrosis factorrelated apoptosis-inducing ligand induces neuronal death in a murine model of HIV central nervous system infection. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the United States of America 2003b; 100(5):2777–2782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nava VE, Rosen A, Veliuona MA, Clem RJ, Levine B, Hardwick JM. Sindbis virus induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent, CrmA-sensitive pathway. Journal of virology 1998; 72(1):452–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Olasmaa M, Rothstein JD, Guidotti A, Weber RJ, Paul SM, Spector S et al. Endogenous benzodiazepine receptor ligands in human and animal hepatic encephalopathy. Journal of neurochemistry 1990; 55(6):2015–2023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pellerin L. Lactate as a pivotal element in neuron-glia metabolic cooperation. Neurochemistry international 2003; 43(4–5):331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pocernich CB, Sultana R, Mohmmad-Abdul H, Nath A, Butterfield DA. HIV-dementia, Tatinduced oxidative stress, and antioxidant therapeutic considerations. Brain research brain research reviews 2005; 50(1):14–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Price RW, Brew BJ. The AIDS dementia complex. The journal of infectious diseases 1988; 158(5):1079–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Quaranta L, Batocchi AP, Sabatelli M, Nociti V, Tartaglione T, Cuonzo F et al. Monophasic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system associated with Hepatitis A infection. Journal of neurology 2006; 253(7):944–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rammohan KW, McFarland HF, McFarlin DE. Induction of subacute murine measles encephalitis by monoclonal antibody to virus haemagglutinin. Nature 1981; 290(5807):588–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raung SL, Kuo MD, Wang YM, Chen CJ. Role of reactive oxygen intermediates in Japanese encephalitis virus infection in murine neuroblastoma cells. Neuroscience letters 2001; 315(1–2):9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Redford EJ, Kapoor R, Smith KJ. Nitric oxide donors reversibly block axonal conduction: demyelinated axons are especially susceptible. Brain: a journal of neurology 1997; 120 (Pt 12):2149–2157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reiss CS, Komatsu T, Barna M, Bi Z. Interleukin-12 promotes enhanced recovery from viral infection of neurons in the central nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1996; 795:257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rothstein JD. Benzodiazepine-receptor ligands and hepatic encephalopathy: a causal relationship. Hepatology 1994; 19(1):248–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rothstein JD, Olasmaa M. Endogenous GABAergic modulators in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Neurochemical research 1990; 15(2):193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schmutzhard E. Viral infections of the CNS with special emphasis on herpes simplex infections. Journal of neurology 2001; 248(6):469–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh NN, Yahya S, Garewal M, Thomas FP. HIV-1 Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex. 5-8-2007 Personal Communication Smith KJ, Kapoor R, Hall SM, Davies M. Electrically active axons degenerate when exposed to nitric oxide. Annals of neurology 2001; 49(4):470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steiner J, Haughey N, Li W, Venkatesan A, Anderson C, Reid R et al. Oxidative stress and therapeutic approaches in HIV dementia. Antioxidants and redox signaling 2006; 8(11–12):2089–2100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stys PK. Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis: is it time for neuroprotective strategies. Annals of neurology 2004; 55(5):601–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stys PK. General mechanisms of axonal damage and its prevention. Journal of the neurological sciences 2005; 233(1–2):3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tardif KD, Waris G, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis C virus, ER stress, and oxidative stress. Trends in microbiology 2005; 13(4):159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tekkok SB, Brown AM, Westenbroek R, Pellerin L, Ransom BR. Transfer of glycogen-derived lactate from astrocytes to axons via specific monocarboxylate transporters supports mouse optic nerve activity. Journal of neuroscience research 2005; 81(5):644–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tenembaum S, Chitnis T, Ness J, Hahn JS, Hahn JS. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology 2007; 68(16 Suppl 2):S23–S36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tilleux S, Hermans E. Neuroinflammation and regulation of glial glutamate uptake in neurological disorders. Journal of neuroscience research 2007; 85(10):2059–2070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Todd C. Central Nervous System in Transplant Recipient. Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. Lippencott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006: pp. 95–110Google Scholar
  55. Tofteng F, Larsen FS. The effect of indomethacin on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion and extracellular lactate and glutamate concentrations in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism 2004; 24(7):798–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Tsiang H, Ceccaldi PE, Ermine A, Lockhart B, Guillemer S. Inhibition of rabies virus infection in cultured rat cortical neurons by an N-methyl-D-aspartate noncompetitive antagonist, MK-801. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 1991; 35(3):572–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tyler KL. Update on herpes simplex encephalitis. Reviews in neurological diseases 2004; 1(4):169–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. The U.S. Multicenter FK506 Liver Study Group. A comparison of tacrolimus (FK 506) and cyclosporine for immunosuppression in liver transplantation. The New England journal of medicine 1994; 331(17):1110–1115Google Scholar
  59. Van Pottelsberghe C, Rammohan KW, McFarland HF, Dubois-Dalcq M. Selective neuronal, dendritic, and postsynaptic localization of viral antigen in measles-infected mice. Laboratory investigation: a journal of technical methods and pathology 1979; 40(1):99–108Google Scholar
  60. Waris G, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis C virus stimulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via oxidative stress: role of prostaglandin E2 in RNA replication. Journal of virology 2005; 79(15):9725–9734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Waris G, Turkson J, Hassanein T, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) constitutively activates STAT-3 via oxidative stress: role of STAT-3 in HCV replication. Journal of virology 2005; 79(3):1569–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Willoughby REJ, Tieves KS, Hoffman GM, Ghanayem NS, Amlie-Lefond CM, Schwabe MJ et al. Survival after treatment of rabies with induction of coma. The New England journal of medicine 2005; 352(24):2508–2514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kottil W. Rammohan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations