Food Web Structure and Its Controls II

  • Ivan Valiela


The previous chapter highlighted the influence of consumers on their food resources, and defined some consequences of such top-down controls. Here, we discuss how resources might influence producers and consumers, effects that can cascade upwards through food webs. We first review selected cases of bottom-up control, then look at evidence of interaction of top-down and bottom-up controls. We end the chapter by examining how both top-down and bottom-up controls are increasingly subject to external forcing by climate-driven change and human activities.


Salt Marsh Bacterial Abundance Chinstrap Penguin Emperor Penguin Penguin Population 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Distinguished Scientist The Ecosystems CenterMarine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA

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