On Eggshells: Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

  • Jennifer Niskala Apps
  • Dawn Pflugradt


Jeff was referred for a neuropsychological evaluation because of longstanding concerns regarding his cognitive and emotional development. In fact, Jeff's family had been searching for diagnostic clarification and treatment since he was an infant.

Jeff's mother noticed something was “wrong” with him in early infancy, although her pregnancy and delivery were without complication. He was described as an infant who cried frequently and was not responsive to touch. Early assessments identified Jeff as being approximately 3–6 months behind in many of his developmental abilities. He was placed in a Birth-to-Three program where he received cognitive, physical, occupational, and speech therapy. During the course of these services, Jeff reportedly normalized in his developmental process as a toddler. However, already he was demonstrating violent tantrums.


Bipolar Disorder Perseverative Error Individualize Education Program Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Verbal Comprehension Index 
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Resources for Clinicians

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Resources for Families

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Niskala Apps
    • 1
  • Dawn Pflugradt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral MedicineMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukee
  2. 2.Milwaukee

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