The most overt physiological problems of space flight are disorientation, perceptual illusions, space motion sickness in-flight and immediately after landing, and locomotion problems postflight, as reported by nearly every astronaut returning from a space mission. These problems are generally most acute during transitions between gravitational force levels that are, unfortunately, the times when physical and cognitive performance is critical for safety and mission success. Postflight symptoms are more severe after 3-6 month Mir and ISS flights than on 1-2 week Shuttle missions, demonstrating that some components of neurovestibular adaptation to microgravity take place over time scales of months, rather than weeks.
KeywordsMotion Sickness International Space Station Space Flight Peripersonal Space Exploration Mission
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