Advertisement

Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis in the Elderly

  • E. Grapsa
  • D. G. Oreopoulos

Commonly, an individual is designated as elderly at 65 years. During the last century, the number of people living beyond age 65 has increased and this will continue increasing. In 1900, only 4% of the Western world’s population was over 65 years of age, but now this fraction is 12% and rising [1]. By the year 2040, 21% of the population in the United States will be over 65, and by the year 2050, one in 20 people in the United States will be older than 85 [2, 3].

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Patient Hemodialysis Patient Advance Directive ESRD Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Gambert SR. Who are the ‘elderly’? Geriat Nephrol Urol 1994; 4: 3–4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mignon F, Michel C, Mentre F, Viron B. Worldwide demographics and future trends of the management of renal failure in the elderly. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 41): S19–S26.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Calkins ME. Ethical issues in the elderly ESRD patients. ANNA J 1993; 20: 569–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Madhan K. The epidemic of elderly patients with dialysis – requiring end-stage renal disease in New Zealand. N Z Med J 2004; 117 (1195): U912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jager JK, Van Dijk P, Dekker WF, Stengel B, Simpson K, Briggs JD. The epidemic of aging in RRT: an update on elderly and their outcome. ERA-EDTA Registry Committee. Clin Nephrol 2003; 60 (5): 352–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    USRDS 2005 Annual Data Report. Incidence and prevalence. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47 (1)S1: 65–80Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ismail N, Hakim RM, Oreopoulos DG, Patrikarea A. Renal replacement therapies in the elderly. Part I: Hemodialysis and chronic peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 27: 759–782.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Canadian Organ Replacement Register 1999. Report Volume 1: Dialysis and Renal Transplantation. Ottawa:Canadian Istitute for Health Information June 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walls J. Dialysis in the elderly: some UK experience. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6(suppl.): 82–85.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    UK Renal Registry Report. UK Renal Registry. 4th Annual Report. UKRR, Bristol, UK; 2001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geelings W, Tufveson G, Brunner, FP, et al. Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation in Europe, XXI, 1990. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1991; 6 (suppl. 4): 5–29.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Valderrabano F, Jones EH, Mallick NP. Report on management of renal failure in Europe, XXIV, 1993. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10 (suppl. 5): 1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nissenson AR. Dialysis therapy in the elderly patient. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 40): S51–S57.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gentile DE, and Geriatric Committee. Peritoneal dialysis in geriatric patients: a survey of clinical practices. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 29–32.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nissensson AR. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Geriatr Nephrol Urol 1991; 1: 3–12.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ANZADATA. Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry 26th Annual Report. Adelaide, South Australia 2004.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mattern WD, McGaghie WC, Rigby RJ, Nissenson AR, Dunham CB, Khayrallah MA. Selection of ESRD treatment: an international study. Am J Kidney Dis 1989; 13: 457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nyberg G, Nilsson B, Norben G, Karlberg I. Outcome of renal transplantation in patients over the age of 60: a case-control study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10: 91–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mignon F, Siohan P, Legallicier B, Khayat R, Viron B, Michel C. The management of uraemia in the elderly: treatment choices. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10(suppl. 6): 55–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Latos DL. Chronic dialysis in patients over age 65. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 637–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D’Adamo G, Di Napoli A, Amoroso F, De Matrino A, Della Grotta F, Filippini A, Mauro M, Rosa M, Santoboni A, Scaccia F, Di Lallo D, Miceli M, Spinelli C. Collaborative study on peritoneal dialysis (PD) AS first dialysis treatment in an Italian region: 1994–2000. G Ital Nefrol 2003; 20 (4): 381–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ross CJ, Rutsky EA. Dialysis modality selection in the elderly patient with end-stage renal disease. Advantages and disadvantages of peritoneal dialysis. In: Nissenson AR, ed. Peritoneal Dialysis in the Geriatric Patient. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 11–18.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vlachojannis J, Kurz P, Hoppe D. CAPD in elderly patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Nephrol 1988; 30 (suppl. 1): S13–S17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wizeman U, Timio M, Alpert MA, Kramer W. Options in dialysis therapy: significance of cariovascular findings. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 40): S85–S91.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niwa A, Taniguchi K, Ito H, et al. Echocardiographic and Holter findings in 321 uremic patients on maintenance hemo-dialysis. Jpn Heart J 1985; 26: 403–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chester AC, Rakowski TH, Argy WP Jr., Giacaolone A, Schreiner GE. Hemodialysis in the eighth and ninth decades of life. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139: 1001–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Feldman HI, Held PJ, Hutchinson JT, Stoiber E, Hartigan MF, Berlin JA. Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity in the United States. Kidney Int 1993; 43: 1091–1096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grapsa EJ, Parakevopoulos AP, Moutafis SP, et al. Complications of vascular access in hemodialysis: aged vs. adult patients. Geriat Nephrol Urol 1998; 8: 21–24.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams P, Rush DR. Geriatric polypharmacy. Hosp Pract 1986; 21: 112, 115–120.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lipschutz DE, Easterling RE. Spontaneous perforation of the colon in chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1973; 132: 758–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stacy W, Sica D. Dialysis of the elderly patient. In: Zawada ET, Sica DA, eds. Geriatric Nephrology and Urology. Littleton, MA: PSG, 1985, pp. 229–251.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blagg CR. Chronic renal failure in the elderly. In: Oreopoulos DG, ed. Geriatric Nephrology. Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986, pp. 285–313.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Porush JG, Faubert PF. Chronic renal failure. In: Porush JG, Faubert PF, eds. Renal Diseases in the Aged. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1991, pp. 285–313.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dimkovic N, and Oreopoulos D.G. Dialysing the elderly: sssues and concerns. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Semin Dial 2003; 15: 94.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Michel C, Bindi P, Viron B. CAPD with private home nurses: an alternative treatment for elderly and disabled patients. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 92–94.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oreopoulos D. Dialyzing the elderly: benefits or burden? Perit Dial Int 1997; 17(suppl. 2): S7–S12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gorban-Brennan N, Kliger AS, Finkelstein FO. CAPD therapy for patients over 80 years of age. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 140–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soreide R, Svarstad E, Iversen BM. CAPD in patients above 70 years of age. Adv Perit Dial 1991, 7: 73–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nissenson AR. Peritoneal dialysis in elderly patients. In: Gokal R, Nolph KD, eds. Textbook of Peritoneal Dialysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994, pp. 661–678.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jagose JT, Afthentopoulos JE, Shetty A, Oreopoulos DG. Successful use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in octogenarians. Adv Perit Dial 1996; 12: 126–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Young MA, Nolph KD, Dutton S, Prowant P. Antihypertensive drug requirements in CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4: 85–88.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cheigh JS, Serur D, Paguirigan M, Stenzel KH, Rubin A. How well is hypertension controlled in CAPD patients? Adv Perit Dial 1994; 10: 55–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Copley JB, Lindberg JS. Insulin: its use in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Semin Dial 1988; 1: 143–150.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saltissi D, Coles GA, Napier JA, Bentley P. The hematological response to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 1984; 22: 21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Brien M, Zimmerman S. Comparison of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in the elderly. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 65–67.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Movilli E, Natale C, Cancarini GC, Maiorca R. Improvement of iron utilization and anemia in uremic patients switched from hemodialysis to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1986; 6: 147–149.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peer G, Korzets A, Hochhauzer E, Eschchar Y, Blum M, Avram A. Cardiac arrhythmia during chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 1987; 45: 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Timio M. Ruolo terapeutico della dialisi peritoneale. In: Timio M, ed. Clinica Cardiologi Nell Uremia. Milan: Wichtig, 1990, p. 8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Joffe P, Skov R, Olsen F. Do patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis need arteriovenous fistula? In: Khanna R, Nolph KD, Prowant B, Twardowski Z, Oreopoulos DG, eds. Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual CAPD Conference. Kansas City, MO, 1986, pp. 84–86.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rottembourg J. Residual renal function and recovery of renal function in patients treated by CAPD. Kidney Int 1993; 43(suppl. 40): S106–S110.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gagnon RF, Somerville P, Kaye M. Beta-2 microglobulin serum levels in patients on long term dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1987; 7: 29–31.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lysaght M, Pollock CA, Moran JE, Ibels LS, Farrell PC. Beta-2 microglobulin removal during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1989; 9: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Delmez JA, Slatopolsky E, Martin K, Gearing B, Harter H. The effects of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral metabolism. Kidney Int 1981; 19: 145 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rowe JW. Health care of the elderly. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 827–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Diaz-Buxo JA. Clinical use of peritoneal dialysis. In: Nissenson AR, Fine RN, Gentile DE, eds. Clinical Dialysis. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1990, pp. 256–300.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bargman JM. Complications of peritoneal dialysis related to increased intraabdominal pressure. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 40): S75–S80.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nolph KD. Peritoneal dialysis. In: Brenner BM, Rector FC, eds. The Kidney, vol. II. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1991, pp. 2299–2335.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sombolos K, Berkelhammer C, Baker J, Wu G, McNamee P, Oreopoulos DG. Nutritional assessment and skeletal muscle function in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1986; 6: 53–58.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dombros NV, Oreopoulos DG. Nutritional aspects of patients on CAPD. In: La Greca G, Chiramonte S, Fabris A, Feriani M, Ronco C, eds. Peritoneal Dialysis. Proceedings of Third International Course on Peritoneal Dialysis, Vicenza, Italy, 1988. Milan: Wichtig, 1988, pp. 113–118.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Twardowski ZJ. Presternal peritoneal catheter. Adv Ren-Replace Ther 2002; 9 (2): 125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brown PN, Johnston KW, Fenton SSA, Cattran DC. Symptomatic exacerbation of peripheral vascular disease with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 1981; 16: 258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cianciaruso B, Brunori G, Traverso G, et al. Nutritional status in the elderly patients with uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10 (suppl. 6): 65–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mitch WE. Uremia and the control of protein metabolism. Nephron 1988; 49: 89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Avram MM, Fein PA, Rafiq MA, Schloth T, Chattopadhyay J, Mittman N. Malnutrition and inflammation as predictors if mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl 2006; 104: s4–s7.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hakim RM, Levin NL. Malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 21: 125–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Piccoli G, Bonello F, Massara C, et al. Death in conditions of cachexia: the price for the dialysis treatment of the elderly? Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 41): S282–S286.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kagan A, Bar-Khayim Y. Role of peritoneal loss of albumin in the hypoalbuminemia continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: relationship to peritoneal transport of solutes. Nephron 1995; 71: 314–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Young GA, Kopple JD, Lindholm B, Vonesh EF, de Vecchi A, Scalamogna A. Nutritional assessment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: an international study. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 17: 462–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lo WK, Tong LK, Li CS, Chan TM, Wong AK, Ho YW, Cheung KO, Kwan TH, Wong KS, Ng FS, Cheng IK. Relationship between adequacy of dialysis and nutritional status and their impact on patient survival on CAPD in Hong kong. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21 (5): 441–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tzamaloucas AH, OreopoulosDG, Murata GH, Servilla K, Rao P, Din S, Malhotra D.The relation between nutrition indices and age in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis receiving similar solute clearance. Int Urol Nephrol 2001; 32 (3): 449–458.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grzegorzewska AE, Leander M. Possible factors contributing to similar peritoneal dialysis outcome in patients over 60 years of age and the younger ones. Int Urol Nephrol 2002-2003;34 (4): 565–572.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Flanigan MJ, Frankenfield DL, Prowant BF, Bailie GR, Frederick PR, Rocco MV. Nutritional markers during peritoneal dialysis :data from the 1998 Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicators Study. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21 (4): 345–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ishizaki M, Matsunaga T,Adachi K, Miyashita E. Dialysis adequacy targets in elderly chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 2005; 21: 175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shimomura A, Tahara D, Azekura H, Matsuo H, Kamo M. Key factors to improve survival of elderly patients on CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 166–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shimomura A, Tahara D, Azekura H. Nutritional improvement in elderly CAPD patients with additional high protein foods. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Boudville N., Rangan A., Moody H. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41 (3): 658–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, et al. Age and indices of adequacy and nutrition in CAPD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mooraki A, Kliger AS, Juergensen P, Gorban-Brennan N, Finkelstein FO. Selected outcome criteria and adequacy of dialysis in diabetic and elderly patients on CAPD therapy. Adv Perit Dial 1994; 10: 89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cancarini G, Constantino E, Brunori G, et al. Nutritional status of long term CAPD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Abdo F, Clemente L, Davy J, Grant J, Ladouceur D, Morton AR. Nutritional status and efficiency of dialysis in CAPD and CCPD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Russell L, Davies S, Russell G. Current nutritional recommendations in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S459–S460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    World Health Organization: Quality of Life Assessment. An annotated bibliography. Geneva: WHO (MNH/PSF/94.1) 1994.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36–item Short–Form Health Survey (SF-36): Conceptual Framework and Item Selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 473–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Blazer D. Depression in the elderly. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 164–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tyrrell J, Paturel L, Cadec B, et al. Older patients undergoing dialysis treatment: cognitive functioning depressive mood and health-related quality of life. Aging Ment Helth 2005; 9: 374–379.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ho-dac Pannekeet. PD in the elderly – a challenge for the (pre)dialysis team. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21 (suppl.): 260–262.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kutner NG, Brogan DJ. Assisted survival, aging, and rehabilitation needs: comparison of older dialysis patients and age-matched peers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 309–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stout JP, Gokal R, Hillier VF, et al. Quality of life of high risk and elderly dialysis patients in the UK. Dial Transplant 1987; 16: 674–677.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Trbojevic JB Nesic VB, Stojimirovic BB. Quality of life of elderly patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21(suppl. 3): S300–S333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Moody H, Moody C, Szabo E, Kejllstrand C. Are old dialysis patients happy and can they fend for themselves or not? XII International Congress on Nephrology, Jerusalem, Israel, 1993, p. 518 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rebollo P, Ortega F, Baltar JM, et al. Is the loss of health-related quality of life during renal replacement therapy lower in the elderly patients than in younger patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 1675–1680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ronsberg F, Isles C, Simpson K,et al. Renal replacement therapy in the over-80s. Age Ageing 2005; 34: 148–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lamping DL , Constantinovici N, Roderick P, et al. Clinical outcomes quality of life and costs in the North Thames Dialysis Study of elderly people on dialysis: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2000; 356: 1543–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kadambi P, Troldle L, Gorban–Brennan N, Kliger AS, Finkelstein FO. APD in the elderly. Semin Dial 2002; 15(6): 430–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    de Vecchi AF, Maccario M, Braga M, Scalamogna A, Castelnovo C, Ponticelli C. Peritoneal dialysis in non-diabetic patients older than 70 years. Comparison with patients aged 40 to 60 years. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 479–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Muthny FA, Koch U. Quality of life of patients with end stage renal failure: a comparison of hemodialysis CAPD and transplantation. Contrib Nephrol 1991; 89: 265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    McDonald M, McPhee PD, Walker R. Successful self-care home dialysis in the elderly: a single center’s experience. Perit Dial Int 1995; 15: 33–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Adcock A, Nelms M. Experience with continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis in the geriatric patient. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 61–64.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barendse SM, Speight J, Bradley C. The renal treatment sadisfaction questionnaire (RTSQ): a measure of sadisfaction with treatment for chronic kidney failure. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 45 (3): 572–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    McKevitt PM, Jones JF, Marion RR. The elderly on dialysis. Physical psychosocial functioning. Dial Transplant 1986; 15: 130–137.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Philips BL, Davis S, White E. Healthy status of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in the context of comorbidity, age, sex, and time on treatment. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 115.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Carey H. Finkelstein S, Santacroce S, et al. The impact of psychosocial factors and age on CAPD dropout. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 26–28.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shah GM, Sabo A, Nguyen T, Juler GL. Peritoneal catheter: a comparative study of column disk and Tenckhoff catheters. Int J Artif Organs 1990; 13: 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Holley JL, Bernardini J, Piraino B. Risk factors for tunnel infections in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 18: 344–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lupo A, Tarchini R, Cancarini G, et al. Long-term outcome in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year survey by the Italian Cooperative Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 24: 826–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Holley JL, Bernardini J, Perlmutter JA, Piraino B. A comparison of infection rates among older and younger patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 66–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nissenson AR, Gentile DE, Soderblom R. Continuous peritoneal dialysis in the elderly – Southern California/Southern Nevada experience. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6(suppl.): 51–55.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tzamaloukas AH, Murata GH, Fox L. Peritoneal catheter loss and death in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13(suppl. 2): S338–S340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Williams AJ, Nicholl JP, el-Nahas AM, Moorhead PJ, Brown CB. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis in the elderly. Q J Med 1990; 74: 215–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Garcia-Urena MA, Rodriguez CR, Vega Ruiz V, Carnero Hernandez FJ, Fernandez-Ruiz E, Vazquez-Gallero JM, Velasco Garcia M. Prevalence and manegament of hernias in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2006; 26 (2): 198–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tokgoz B, Dogucan A, Gunen M, Unluhizarci K, Oymak O, Utas C. Relationship between different body size indicators and hernia development in CAPD patients. Clin Nephrol 2002; 60 (3); 183–186.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Atkins RC, Wood C. Hyperlipemia in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13(suppl. 2): S415–S417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nakagawa S, Ozawa K. Protective aspects for atherogenesis and lipid abnormalities in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13(suppl. 2): S418–S420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Panarello G, Calianno G, De Baz H, Signori D, Cappelletti P, Tesio F. Does continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis induce hypercholesterolemia? Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl. 2): S421–S423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini G, Brunori G, et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl. 2): S165–S171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Saltissi D, Morgan C, Rigby RJ, Westhuyzen J. Safety and efficacy of Simvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic renal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39 (2): 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Harris KPG, Wheeler DC, Chong CC, and the Atorvastatin in CAPD Study Invesigators. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 1469–1474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wanner C, Krane V, Marz W, Olschewski M, Mann J, Ruf G, Ritz E. For the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study Investigators. Atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 238–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Anderson JE. Ten years' experience with CAPD in a nursing home setting. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 255–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Benevent D, Benzakour M, Peyronnet P, Legarde C, Leroux-Robert C, Charmes JP. Comparison of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in the elderly. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6(suppl.): 68–71.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gorban-Brennan N, Kliger AS, Finkelstein FO. CAPD therapy for patients over 80 years of age. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 140–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    De Fijter CWH, Oe PL, Nauta JJP, et al. A prospective, randomized study comparing the peritonitis incidence of CAPD and Y-connector (CAPD-Y) with continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 186–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Strauss FG, Holmes DL, Dennis RL, Nortman DF. Pre-spiking dialysate bags: improved peritonitis prevention in patients on CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 193–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Grutzmachere P, Tsobanelis T, Bruns N, Kurz P, Hoppe D, Vlachojannis J. Decrease in peritonitis rate by integrated disconnect system in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl. 2): S326–S328.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Port FK, Held PH, Nolph KD, Turenne MN, Wolfe RA. Risk of peritonitis and technique failure by CAPD connection technique: a national study. Kidney Int 1992; 42: 967–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kawaguchi Y. Present status of CAPD in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: xlix–lii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Imada A, Kawaguchi Y, Kumano K, Nomoto YU, Chiku T, Yamabe K. The peritonitis study group in Japan and Baxter Health Care. A multicenter study of CAPD related peritonitis in Japan. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 264A (Abstract).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dimkovic NB, Prakash S, Roscoe J, Brissenden J, Tam P, Bargman J, Vas IS, Oreopoulos DG. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in octogenarians. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16 (10): 2034–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Segoloni GP, Salomone M, Piccoli GB. CAPD in the elderly: Italian multicenter study experience. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 41–46.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Posen GA, Fenton SA, Arbus GS, Churchill DN, Jeffery JR. The Canadian experience with peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 47–50.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nolph KD, Lindblad AS, Novak JW, Steinberg SM. Experiences with the elderly in the National CAPD Registry. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 33–37.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gokal AR. CAPD in the elderly – European and UK experience. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 38–40.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nebel M, Finke K. CAPD in patients over 60 years of age. Review from 1984–1989. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 56–60.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ramos JM, Gokal R, Siamopoulos K, Ward MK, Wilkinson R, Kerr DN. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: three years experience. Q J Med 1983; 52: 165–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Camerini C, et al. Is CAPD competitive with haemodialysis for long-term treatment of uraemic patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1989; 4: 244–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lupo A, Cancarini G, Catizone L, et al. Comparison of survival in CAPD and hemodialysis: a multicenter study. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Joglar F, Saade M. Improved overall survival of elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 63–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Piccoli G, Quarello F, Salomone M, et al. Dialysis in the elderly: comparison of different dialytic modalities. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6 (suppl.): 72–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Summer MA, Clancy MJ, Syed F, Harwood N, Brenchley PEC, Augustine T, Riad H, Hutchison AJ, Taylor P, Pearson R, Gokal R. Single-center experience of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients on peritoneal dialysis for end – stage renal failure. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 2381–2388.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tsai TJ, Tsai HF, Chen YM, Hsieh BS, Chen WY, Yen TS. CAPD in patients unable to do their own bag change. Perit Dial Int 1991; 11: 356–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    USDRS Annual Data Report. Renal Data System, 1991. Hospitalization for dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1991: 18 (suppl. 2): 74–78.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    USDRS Annual Data Report 2005. Renal Data System Morbidity and Mortality Hospitalization and mortality by modality. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47 (1 suppl. 1): 130–143.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    USRDS Annual Data Report. Hospitalization. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32(suppl. 1): S109–S117.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Habach G, Bloembergen WE, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA, Port FK. Hospitalization among United States dialysis patients: hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995; 5: 1940–1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Malberti F, Conte F, Limido A, et al. Ten years experience of renal replacement treatment in the elderly. Geriatr Nephrol Urol 1997; 7: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wadhwa NK, Suh H, Cabralda T, Sokol E, Sokumbi D, Solomon M. Peritoneal dialysis with trained home nurses in elderly and disabled end-stage renal disease patients. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 130–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Selgas R, Cirugeda A, Fernandez-Perpen A, et al. Comparisons of hemodialysis and CAPD in patients over years of ages: a meta–analysis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2001; 33 (2): 259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    URSDS 1995. Annual Data Report. ESRD treatment modalities. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26 (suppl. 2): 551–568.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Brogan D, Kutner NG, Flagg E. Survival differences among older dialysis patients in the southeast. Am J Kidney Dis 1992; 20: 376–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Verbeeten D, De Neve W, Van der Viepeen P, Sennesael J. Dialysis in patients over 65 years of age. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 41): S27–S30.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Khan IH, Catto GR, Edward N, Fleming LW, Henderson LS, McLeod AM. Influence of coexisting disease on survival on renal replacement therapy. Lancet 1993; 341: 415–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Trivedi H, Tan SH, Prowant B, Sherman A, Voinescu CG, Atalla J, Khanna R, Nolph K. Predictors of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis: the Missouri Peritoneal Dialysis Study. Am J Nephrol 2005; 25 (5): 466–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Neves PL. Chronic haemodialysis in elderly patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10 (suppl. 6): 69–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gentil MA, Carriazo A, Pavon MI, et al. Comparison of survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hospital haemodialysis: a multicentre study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1991; 6: 444–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Fenton SS, Schaubel DE, Desmeules M, et al. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a comparison of adjusted mortality rates. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 334–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Byrne C, Vernon P, Cohen JJ. Effect of age and diagnosis on survival of older patients beginning chronic dialysis. JAMA 1994; 271: 34–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Michel C, Khayat R, Virion B, Siohan P. Mignon F. Early mortality during renal replacement therapy (RRT) in ESRD patients 65 years and over. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 4: 369.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Munshi KS, Vijayakumar N, Taub AN, Bhullar H, Nelson Lo TC, Warwick G. Outcome of renal replacement therapy in the very elderly. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16 (1) : 128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Salomone M, Piccoli GB, Quarello F, et al. Dialysis in the elderly: improvement of survival results in the eighties Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10 (suppl. 6): 60–64.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Maitra S, Jassal SV, Shea J, Chu M, Bargman JM. Increased mortality of elderly female peritoneal dialysis patients with diabetes – a descriptive analysis. Adv Perit Dial. 2001; 17: 117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Winkelmayer WC, Glynn RJ, Mittleman MA, Levin R, Pliskin JS, Avorn J. Comparing mortality of elderly patients on hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a propensity score approach. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 2353–2362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Churchill DN, Thorpe KE, Vonesh EF, Keshaviah PR. Lower probability of patient survival with continuous peritoneal dialysis in the United States compared with Canada. CANADA–USA (CANUSA) peritoneal dialysis study group. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 965–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    USRDS 1998 Annual Data Report. Patient mortality and survival. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32(suppl. 1) pp. S69–80.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    USRDS 1998 Annual Data Report. Causes of death. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32 (suppl. 1): S81–S8.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Brunori G, Camerini C, Canacrini G, et al. Hospitalization: CAPD versus hemodialysis and transplant. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gokal R, Jakubowski C, King J, et al. Outcome in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: 4-year analysis of a prospective multicentre study. Lancet 1987; 2: 1105–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Maiorca R, Vonesh E, Cancarini GC, et al. A six-year comparison of patient and technique survivals in CAPD and HD. Kidney Int 1988; 34: 518–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lunde NM, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Guire KE. Comparison of mortality risk by choice of CAPD versus hemodialysis among elderly patients. Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Termorshuizen F, Korevaar CJ, Dekker W F, van Manen GJ, Boeschoten WE, Krediet RT, for the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis Study Group. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: comparison of adjusted mortality rates according to the duration of dialysis :Analysis ofthe Netherlands cooperative study on the adequacy of dialysis 2. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003 14: 2851–2860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Iqbal MM, Islam MN ,Mansur MA, Naeem GM, Sattar H ,Hossain RM, Mohsin M, Rahman MH, Rashid HU. Outcome of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in elderly patients with diabetes: experience from Bangladesh. Adv Perit Dial 2005; 21: 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Jaar GB, Coresh J ,Plantinga CL, Fink EN, Klag JM, Levey SA, Levin WN, Sadler HJ, Kliger A, Powe RN.Comparing the risk for death with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in a National Cohort of patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143 (3): 174–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Marcelli D, Spotti D, Conte F, et al. Survival of diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S283–S287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    USRDS Annual Data Report 1991. Incidence and causes of treated ESRD. Methods of ESRD treatment. Survival probabilities and causes of death. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 18 (suppl. 2): 30–60.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Brunori G, et al. Comparison of long-term survival between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1996; 12: 79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Zubani R, et al. CAPD viability: a long-term comparison with hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 276–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Collins JA, Weinhandl E, Snyder JJ, Chen SC, Gilbertson D. Dialysing the eldely: Issues and concerns. Comparison and survival of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Seminars in Dialysis 2002; 15: 98–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rubin HR Fink NE, Plantinga LC, Sadler LH, Kliger AS, Powe NR. Patient ratings of dialysis care with peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis. JAMA 2004; 291 (6): 697–703.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kim YS, Yang CW, Jin DC, et al. Comparison of peritoneal catheter survival with fistula survival in hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 1995; 15: 147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Westlie L, Umen A, Nestrud S, Kjellstrand C. Mortality, morbidity, and life satisfaction in the very old dialysis patient. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1984; 30: 21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Harris SA, Lamping DL, Brown EA, Constantinovici N, for the North Thames Dialysis Study (NSDS) Group. Clinical outcomes and quality of live in elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 2002; 22 (4): 463–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Feest TG, Mistry CD, Grimes DS, Mallick NP. Incidence of advanced chronic renal failure and the need for end stage renal replacement treatment. Br Med J 1990; 301: 897–900.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Challah S, Wing AJ, Bauer R, Morris RW, Schroeder SA. Negative selection for dialysis and transplantation in the United Kingdom. Br Med J 1984; 288: 1119–1122.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sekkarie A, Moss AH. Withholding and withdrawing dialysis: the role of physician speciality and education and functional status. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 464–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Mendelssohn DC, Kua BT, Singer PA. Referral for dialysis in Ontario. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 2473–2478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Radcliffe-Richards J, Daar AS, Guttmann RD, et al. The case for allowing kidney sales. International Forum for Transplant Ethics. Lancet 1998; 351: 1950–1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Hall MA, Berenson RA. Ethical practice in managed care: a dose of realism. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 395–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    United States Renal Data System. 1996 Annual Report. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 28 (suppl. 2): S1–165.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Office Technology Assessment. Dialysis for chronic renal failure. In: Life-sustaining Technologies and the Elderly. OTA-BA-306. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1987, pp. 2–7.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Port FK, Wolfe RA, Hawthorne VM, Ferguson CW. Discontinuation of dialysis therapy as a cause of death. Am J Nephrol 1989; 9: 145–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Bhatnagar V, Maruenda J, Lowenthal DT. Ethical issues involved in dialysis for the elderly. Geriat Nephrol Urol 1998; 8: 111–114.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Birmele B,Francois M, Pengloan J, Francais P, Testou D, Brillet G, Lechapois D, Baudin S, Grezard O, Jourdan J-L, Fodil-Cherif M, Abaza M, Dupouet L, Fournier G,Nivet H. Death after withdrawal from dialysis :the most common cause of death in a French dialysis population. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 686–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Clement R, Chevalet P, Rodat O, Ouid–Aoudia V, Berger M. Withholding or Withdrawing dialysis in the elderly: the perspective of a western region of France. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20 (11): 2446–2452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Holley JL, Nespor S, Rault R. Chronic in-center hemodialysis patients' attitudes, knowledge and behavior towards advance directives. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 3: 1405–1408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Maiorca R. Ethical issues in dialysis: prospects for the year 2000. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13 (suppl. 1): 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Rutecki GW, Cugino A, Jarjoura D, Kilner JF, Whittier FC. Nephrologists' subjective attitudes towards end-of-life issues and the conduct of terminal care. Clin Nephrol 1997; 48: 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Eiser AR. Withdrawal from dialysis: the role of autonomy and community-based values. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 27: 451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Beauchamp TL. Reversing the protections. Hastings Cent Rep 1994; 24: 18–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Murray TH. Communities need more than autonomy. Hasting Cent Rep 1994; 24: 32–33.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Callahan D. Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1987.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Chambers CV, Diamond JJ, Perkel RL, et al. Relationship of advanced directives to hospital charges in a Medicare population. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 541–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Anonymous. Bishop warns against withdrawing life supports. Hosp Ethics 1992; 8: 9–10.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Jacobovits I. Ethical problems regarding termination of life. In: Meier L, ed. Jewish Values in Bioethics. New York: Human Sciences, 1986, pp. 84–95.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Moss AH, Stocking CB, Sachs GA, Siegler M. Variation in attitudes of dialysis unit medical directors towards decisions to withhold and withdraw dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 4: 229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Bleyer AJ, Tell GS, Evans GW, Ettinger WH, Burkart JM. Survival of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy in one center with special emphasis on racial differences. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 28: 72–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Grapsa
    • 1
  • D. G. Oreopoulos
  1. 1.Alexandra Hospital, Renal UnitGreece

Personalised recommendations