Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammation

  • P. Stenvinkel
  • E. Ritz

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a markedly reduced lifespan. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), sudden death, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and congestive heart failure (CHF), accounts for premature death in more than 50% of dialysis patients from North America and Europe [1]. As premature CVD accounts for the majority of all-cause mortality, CKD should, like diabetes mellitus (DM), be considered a “high risk” group for CVD [2] and vascular disease should be treated with the same maximum armatorium of drugs and with active interventions, such as coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG), as would be indicated in the high-risk segments of the nonrenal population. This includes the use of antiplatelet agents, angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, nitroglycerine, and statins.


Chronic Kidney Disease Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Patient Brain Natriuretic Peptide Chronic Kidney Disease Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal Medicine K56Karolinska University Hospital at HuddingeSweden
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 162University of HeidelbergGermany

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