Advertisement

Protein-Energy Malnutrition/Wasting During Peritoneal Dialysis

  • J. J. Carrero
  • O. Heimbürger
  • M. Chan
  • J. Axelsson
  • P. Stenvinkel
  • B. Lindholm

The kidneys play a key role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, excretion of metabolic waste products, and regulation of various hormonal and metabolic pathways. Even a slight reduction in renal function may therefore have metabolic and nutritional consequences. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) display a variety of metabolic and nutritional abnormalities and a large proportion of the patients demonstrate signs of protein-energy wasting (PEW) [1, 2], and these problems become more severe when patients reach the stage of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [2, 3], a condition that, by definition, means the need to start life-saving renal replacement therapy by dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Keywords

Chronic Kidney Disease Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Patient Chronic Kidney Disease Patient ESRD Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Heimburger O, Qureshi AR, Blaner WS, Berglund L, Stenvinkel P. Hand-grip muscle strength, lean body mass, and plasma proteins as markers of nutritional status in patients with chronic renal failure close to start of dialysis therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36(6):1213–1225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindholm B, Axelsson J, Heimburger O, Qureshi AR, Cederholm T, Stenvinkel P. Pharmacotherapy of cachexia and anorexia in end-stage renal disease. In: Hogbauer KG Anker SD, Inui A, Nicholson JR, eds. Pharmacotherapy of Cachexia. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC; 2006: 181–220.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Young GA, Kopple JD, Lindholm B, et al. Nutritional assessment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: an international study. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 17: 462–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jager KJ, Merkus MP, Huisman RM, et al. Nutritional status over time in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 1272–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pollock CA, Cooper BA, Ibels LS, de Kantzow E. Nutritional aspects of peritoneal dialysis. In: Gokal R, Khanna R, Krediet RTh, Nolph KD, eds. Textbook of Peritoneal Dialysis. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000: 515–545.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams P, Kay R, Harrison J, et al. Nutritional and anthropometric assessment of patients on CAPD over one year: contrasting changes in total body nitrogen and potassium. Perit Dial Bull 1981; 1: 82–87.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindholm B, Alvestrand A, Fürst P, Bergström J. Plasma and muscle free amino acids during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 1219–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chung SH, Lindholm B, Lee HB. Influence of initial nutritional status on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient survival. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jansen MAM, Korevaar JC, Dekker FW, et al. Renal function and nutritional status at the start of chronic dialysis treatment. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCusker FX, Teehan BP, Thorpe KE, Keshaviah PR, Churchill DN, for the Canada-USA (CANUSA) peritoneal dialysis study group. How much peritoneal dialysis is required for the maintenance of a good nutritional state? Kidney Int 1996; 50 (suppl 56): S56–S61.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumano K, Kawaguchi Y, and the group for Water and Electrolyte Balance Study in CAPD. Multicenter cross-sectional study for dialysis dose and physician’s subjective judgement in Japanese peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35: 515–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooper BA, Aslani A, Ryan M, Ibels LS, Pollock CA. Nutritional state correlates with renal function at the start of dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23 (3): 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duenhas MR, Draibe SA, Avesani CM, Sesso R, Cuppari L. Influence of renal function on spontaneous dietary intake and on nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57 (11): 1473–1478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nelson EE, Hong CD, Pesce AL, Peterson DW, Singh S, Pollak VE. Anthropometric norms for the dialysis population. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 16: 32–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bergström J, Lindholm B. Nutrition and adequacy of dialysis. How do hemodialysis and CAPD compare? Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl 40): S39–S50.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tranaeus A, Heimbürger O, Lindholm B, Bergström J. Six years' experience of CAPD at one centre: a survey of major findings. Perit Dial Int 1988; 8: 31–41.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pollock CA, Ibels LS, Caterson RJ, Mahony JF, Waugh DA, Cocksedge B. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, eight years of experience at a single center. Medicine 1989; 68: 293–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pollock CA, Allen BJ, Warden RA, et al. Total body nitrogen by neutron activation in maintenance dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 16: 38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B, Lonnqvist F, Katzarski K, Heimburger O. Increases in serum leptin levels during peritoneal dialysis are associated with inflammation and a decrease in lean body mass. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11 (7): 1303–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johansson A, Samuelsson O, Haraldsson B, Bosaeus J, Attman P-O. Body composition in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 1511–1517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Canada-USA (CANUSA) Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. Adequacy of dialysis and nutrition in continuous peritoneal dialysis: association with clinical outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7 (2):198–207.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marckmann P. Nutritional status of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 1988; 29: 75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stenvinkel P, Barany P, Chung SH, Lindholm B, Heimburger O. A comparative analysis of nutritional parameters as predictors of outcome in male and female ESRD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17 (7): 1266–1274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maiorca R, Vonesh E, Cancarini GC, et al. A six years comparison of patient and technique survivals in CAPD and HD. Kidney Int 1988; 34: 518–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maiorca R, Vonesh EF, Cavalli PL, et al. A multicenter, selection-adjusted comparison of patient and technique survivals on CAPD and hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 1991; 114: 118–127.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    CANADA-USA (CANUSA) Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. Adequacy of dialysis and nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Association with clinical outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 198–207.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Churchill DN, Thorpe KE, Vonesh EF, Keshaviah PR. Lower probability of patient survival with continuous peritoneal dialysis in the United States compared with Canada. Canada-USA (CANUSA) Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8(6): 965–971.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heimbürger O, Bergström J, Lindholm B. Is serum albumin an indication of nutritional status in CAPD patients? Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 108–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heimbürger O, Bergström J, Lindholm B. Albumin and amino acids as markers of adequacy in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14 (suppl 3): S123–S132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, et al. Cross-sectional assessment of weekly urea and creatinine clearance and indices of nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 178–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Struijk DG, Krediet RT, Koomen GCM, Boeschoten EW, Arisz L. The effect of serum albumin at the start of CAPD treatment on patient survival. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blake PG, Flowerdew G, Blake RM, Oreopoulos DG. Serum albumin in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis – predictors and correlations with outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 3: 1501–1507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaysen GA, Rathore V, Shearer GC, Depner TA. Mechanisms of hypoalbuminemia in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1995; 48: 510–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stenvinkel P, Heimburger O, Lindholm B, Kaysen GA, Bergstrom J. Are there two types of malnutrition in chronic renal failure? Evidence for relationships between malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15 (7): 953–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32 (suppl 5): S112–S119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pupim LB, Caglar K, Hakim RM, Shyr Y, Ikizler TA. Uremic malnutrition is a predictor of death independent of inflammatory status. Kidney Int 2004; 66 (5): 2054–2060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pupim LB, Ikizler TA. Assessment and monitoring of uremic malnutrition. J Ren Nutr 2004; 14 (1): 6–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bergström J. Protein catabolic factors in patients on renal replacement therapy. In-depth Review. Blood Purif 1985; 3: 215–236.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lindholm B, Bergström J. Nutritional requirements of peritoneal dialysis. In: Gokal R, Nolph KD, eds. Textbook of Peritoneal Dialysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994: 443–472.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lindholm B, Bergström J. Nutritional management of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. In: Nolph KD, ed. Peritoneal Dialysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1989: 230–260.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Enia G, Sicuso C, Alati G, Zocalli C. Subjective global assessement of nutrition in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8: 1094–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Qureshi AR, Alvestrand A, Danielsson A, et al. Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study. Kidney Int 1998; 53 (3): 773–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cooper BA, Bartlett LH, Aslani A, Allen BJ, Ibels LS, Pollock CA. Validity of subjective global assessment as a nutritional marker in end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 126–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Desbrow B, Bauer J, Blum C, et al. Assessment of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients using patient-generated subjective global assessment. J Ren Nutr 2005; 15: 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Campbell KL, Ash S, Bauer J, Davies P. Critical review of nutrition assessment tools to measure malnutrition in chronic kidney disease. Nutr Diet. 2007; 64: 23–30.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Steiber AL, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Secker D, McCarthy M, Sehgal A, McCann L. Subjective Global Assessment in chronic kidney disease: a review. J Ren Nutr 2004; 14 (4): 191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Afsar B, Sezer S, Ozdemir FN, Celik H, Elsurer R, Haberal M. Malnutrition-inflammation score is a useful tool in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2006; 26 (6): 705–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bennett PN, Breugelmans L, Meade A, Parkhurst D. A simple nutrition screening tool for hemodialysis nurses. J Ren Nutr 2006; 16 (1): 59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang AY, Sea MM, Ho ZS, Lui SF, Li PK, Woo J. Evaluation of handgrip strength as a nutritional marker and prognostic indicator in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81 (1): 79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Avesani CM, Draibe SA, Kamimura MA, et al. Assessment of body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and creatinine kinetics in chronic kidney disease patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (9): 2289–2295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wisse BE. The inflammatory syndrome: The role of adipose tissue cytokines in metabolic disorders linked to obesity. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15 (11): 2792–2800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Axelsson J, Rashid Qureshi A, Suliman ME, et al. Truncal fat mass as a contributor to inflammation in end-stage renal disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80 (5): 1222–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johansson A-C, Attman P-O, Haraldsson B. Creatinine generation rate and lean body mass: a critical analysis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 1997; 51: 855–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jones CH, Newstead CG, Will EJ, Smye SW, Davison AM. Assessment of nutritional status in CAPD patients: serum albumin is not a useful measure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 1406–1413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Szeto CC, Kong J, Wu AKL, Wong TYH, Wang AYM, Li PKT. The role of lean body mass as a nutritional index in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients-comparison of creatinine kinetics method and anthropometric method. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 708–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bhatla B, Moore H, Emerson P, et al. Lean body mass estimation by creatinine kinetics, bioimpedance, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 1995; 41: M442–M446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nielsen PK, Ladefoged J, Olgaard K. Lean body mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and by urine and dialysate creatinine recovery in CAPD and pre-dialysis patients compared to normal subjects. Adv Perit Dial 1994; 10: 99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Borovnicar DJ, Wong KC, Kerr PG, et al. Total body protein status assessed by different estimates of fat-free mass in adult peritoneal dialysis patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50: 607–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Forbes GB, Bruining GJ. Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass. Am J Clin Nutr 1976; 29: 1359–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Blake PG, Chu KH. Creatinine production and excretion in end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 1119–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schoenfeld PY. Albumin is an unreliable marker of nutritional status. Semin Dial 1992; 5: 218–223.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yeun JY, Kaysen GA. Acute phase proteins and peritoneal dialysate albumin loss are the main determinants of serum albumin in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 923–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lowrie EG, Lew NL. Commonly measured laboratory variables in hemodialysis patients: relationships among them and to death risk. Semin Nephrol 1992; 12 (3): 276–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Axelsson J, Bergsten A, Qureshi AR, et al. Elevated resistin levels in chronic kidney disease are associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate and inflammation, but not with insulin resistance. Kidney Int 2006; 69 (3): 596–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. K/DOQI, National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35(6 Suppl 2): S1–140.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schoenheyder F, Heilskov NSC, Olsen K. Isotopic studies on the mechanism of negative nitrogen balance produced by immobilization. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1954; 6: 178–188.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bergstrom J. Regulation of appetite in chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1999; 25 (4–6): 291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dobell E, Chan M, Williams P, Allman M. Food preferences and food habits of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. J Am Diet Assoc 1993; 93: 1129–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wright M, Woodrow G, O’Brien S, et al. Disturbed appetite patterns and nutrient intake in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23 (6): 550–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Szeto CC, Lai KN, Wong TYH, et al. Independent effect of residualrenal function and dialysis adequacy on nutritional status and patient outcome in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 34: 1056–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cho DK. Nutritional status in long-term peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19 (suppl 2): S337–S340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kang DH, Lee R, Lee HY, et al. Metabolic acidosis and composite nutritional index (CNI) in CAPD patients. Clin Nephrol 2000; 53: 124–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kishi K, Miytani K, Inoue G. Requirement and utilization of egg protein by Japanese young men with marginal intakes of energy. J Nutr 1978; 198: 658–669.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Heimbürger O, Waniewski J, Werynski A, Lindholm B. A quantitative description of solute and fluid transport during peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1992; 41: 1320–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lindholm B, Berström J. Nutritional aspects on peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1993; 42 (suppl 38): 165–171.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fernström A, Hylander B, Rössner S. Energy intake in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. J Intern Med 1996; 240: 211–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Uribarri J, Leibowitz J, Dimaano F. Caloric intake in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: 1019–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bergström J, Fürst P, Alvestrand A, Lindholm B. Protein and energy intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen losses in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1993; 44: 1048–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Aguilera A, Codoceo R, Bajo MA, et al. Eating behavior disorders in uremia: a question of balance in appetite regulation. Semin Dial 2004; 17 (1): 44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Espinoza M, Aguilera A, Bajo MA, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha as a uremic toxin: correlation with neuropathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, anemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 1999; 15: 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Heimbürger O, Lönnqvist F, Danielsson A, Nordenström J, Stenvinkel P. Serum immunoreactive leptin concentration and its relation to body fat content in chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 1423–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Aguilera A, Codoceo R, Selgas R, et al. Anorexigen (TNF-alpha, cholecystokinin) and orexigen (neuropeptide Y) plasma levels in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients: their relationship with nutritional parameters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13 (6): 1476–1483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bergström J. Malnutrition in patients on renal replacement therapy. In: Andreucci VE, Fine LG, eds. International Yearbook of Nephrology 1993. London: Springer-Verlag; 1993: 245–265.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goodship THJ, Passlick-Deetjen J, Ward MK, Wilkinson R. Adequacy of dialysis and nutritional status in CAPD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8: 1366–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ronco C, Conz P, Agostini F, Bosch JP, Lew SQ, La Greca G. The concept of adequacy in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14 (suppl 3): S93–S98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gotch FA. Dependence of normalized protein catabolic rate on Kt/V in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: not a mathematical artifact. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 173–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stein A, Walls J. The correlation between Kt/V and protein catabolic rate – a self-fulfilling prophecy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9: 743–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Harty J, Venning M, Gokal R. Does CAPD guarantee adequate dialysis delivery and nutrition. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9: 1721–1723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Harty JC, Boulton H, Curwell J, et al. The normalized protein catabolic rate is a flawed marker of nutrition in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 1994; 45: 103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mak SK, Wong PN, Lo KY, Tong GM, Fung LH, Wong AK. Randomized prospective trial study of the effect of increased dialystic dose on nutritional and clinical outcome in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36: 105–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Paniagua R, Amato D, Vonesh E, et al. Effects of increased peritoneal clearances on mortality rates in peritoneal dialysis: ADEMEX, a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13 (5):1307–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Davies SJ, Phillips L, Griffiths AM, Naish PF, Russel GI. Analysis of the effects of increasing delivered dialysis treatment to malnourished peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 2000; 57: 1743–1754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Björvell H, Hylander B. Functional status and personality in patients on chronic dialysis. J Intern Med 1990; 226: 319–324.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Anderson JE, Yim KB, Crowell MD. Prevalence of gastrooesophageal reflux in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 1999; 15: 75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fernström A, Hylander B, Grytbäck P, Jacobsson H, Hellström PM. Gastric emptying and electrogastrography in patients on CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19: 429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brown-Cartwright D, Smith HJ, Feldman G. Gastric emptying of indigestable solid in patients with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 49–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bird NJ, Streather CP, O’Dohery MJ, Barton IK, Gaunt JI, Nunan TO. Gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 9: 287–290.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Van Vlem B, Schoonjans R, Vanholder R, et al. Delayed gastric emptying in dyspeptic chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36: 962–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hylander BI, Dalton CB, Castell DO, Burkart J, Rössner S. Effect of intraperitoneal fluid volume changes on esophageal pressure: studies in patients on continuous ambulatory peitoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 17: 307–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hylander BI, Barkeling B, Rössner S. Eating behavior in continuous ambulatory peitoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1992; 20: 592–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Balaskas EV, Rodela H, Oreopoulos DG. Effect of intraperitoneal infusion of dextrose and amino acids on the appetite of rabbits. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl 2): S490–S498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Musk M, Anderson H, Oreopoulos D, et al. Effects of amino acid dialysate on appetite in CAPD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 153–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Anderstam B, Mamoun A-H, Södersten P, Bergström J. Middle-sized molecule fractions isolated from uremic ultrafiltrate and normal urine inhibit ingestive behavior in the rat. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 2453–2460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mamoun AH, Anderstam B, Södersten P, Lindholm B, Bergström J. Influence of peritoneal dialysis solutions with glucose and amino acids on ingestive behavior in rats. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 1276–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zheng ZH, Anderstam B, Sederholm F, et al. Less inhibition of appetite with IP bicarbonate – than with lactate-based electrolyte solution (abstract). Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 155.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zheng ZH, Sederholm F, Qureshi AR, et al. Peritoneal dialysis solutions affect ingestive behavior in rats appetite model (abstract). Perit Dial Int 2000; 20 (suppl 1): S45.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Davies SJ, Russel L, Bryan J, Phillips L, Russell GI. Impact of peritoneal absorption of glucose on appetite, protein catabolism and survival in CAPD patients. Clin Nephrol 1996; 45: 194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Blumenkrantz MJ, Gahl GM, Kopple JD, et al. Protein losses during peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1981; 19: 593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Young GA, Brownjohn AM, Parsons FM. Protein losses in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 1987; 45: 196–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dulaney JT, Hatch FE. Peritoneal dialysis and loss of proteins: a review. Kidney Int 1984; 26: 253–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Westra WM, Kopple JD, Krediet RT, Appell M, Mehrotra R. Dietary protein requirements and dialysate protein losses in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2007; 27 (2): 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rippe B, Haraldsson B. How are macromolecules transported across the capillary wall. NIPS 1987; 2: 135–138.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rippe B, Stelin G. Simulations of peritoneal solute transport during CAPD. Applications of two-pore formalism. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 1234–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kagan A, Bar-Khayim Y, Schafer Z, Fainaru M. Kinetics of peritoneal protein loss during CAPD: I. Different characteristics for low and high molecular weight proteins. Kidney Int 1990; 37: 971–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kagan A, Bar-Khayim Y, Schafer Z, Fainaru M. Kinetics of peritoneal protein loss during CAPD: II. Lipoprotein leakage and its impact on plasma lipid levels. Kidney Int 1990; 37: 980–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Heimbürger O, Stenvinkel P, Berglund L, Tranæus A, Lindholm B. Increased plasma lipoprotein(a) in CAPD is related to peritoneal transport of proteins and glucose. Nephron 1995; 72: 135–144.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kaysen GA, Schoenfeld PY. Albumin homeostasis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1984; 25: 107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Heimbürger O. Peritoneal transport in patients treated with continuous peritoneal dialysis [Ph.D. Thesis], Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; 1994.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Selgas R, Bajo MA, Fernandez-Reyes MJ, et al. An analysis of adequacy of dialysis in a selected population on CAPD for over three years: the influence of urea and creatinine kinetics. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8: 1244–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with a high flux membrane. ASAIO J 1993; 39: 904–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Heaf J. CAPD adequacy and dialysis morbidity: detrimental effect of a high peritoneal equilibration rate. Ren Fail 1995; 17: 575–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Harty J, Boulton H, Venning M, Gokal R. Is peritoneal permeability an adverse risk factor for malnutrition in CAPD patients? Miner Electrolyte Metab 1996; 22: 97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cueto-Manzano AM, Espinosa A, Hernández A, Correa-Rotter R. Peritoneal transport kinetics correlate with serum albumin but not with the overall nutritional status in CAPD patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Churchill DN, Thorpe KE, Nolph KD, et al. Increased peritoneal membrane transport is associated with decreased patient and technique survival for continuous peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 1285–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wang T, Heimbürger O, Waniewski J, Bergström J, Lindholm B. Increased peritoneal permeability is associated with decreased fluid and small-solute removal and higher mortality in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 1242–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cueto-Manzano AM, Correa-Rotter R. Is high peritoneal transport rate an independent risk factor for CAPD mortality? Kidney Int 2000; 57: 314–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kang DH, Yoon KI, Choi KB, et al. Relationship of peritoneal membrane transport characteristics to the nutritional status in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 1715–1722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Szeto CC, Law MC, Wong TYH, Leung CB, Li PKT. Peritoneal transport status correlates with morbidity but not longitudial change of nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year prospective study. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 329–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tzamaloukas AH, Saddler MC, Murata GH, et al. Symptomatic fluid retention in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995; 6: 198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chung SH, Heimbürger O, Stenvinkel P, Bergström J, Lindholm B. Association between inflammation and changes in residual renal function and peritoneal transport rate during the first year of dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 2240–2245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Heimbürger O, Wang T, Chung SH, Ohlsson S, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. Increased peritoneal transport rate from an early peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is related to inflammation, cardiovascular disease and mortality (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 315A.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stenvinkel P, Chung SH, Heimburger O, Lindholm B. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21 (suppl 3): S157–S162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    May RC, Hara Y, Kelly RA, Block KP, Buse MG, Mitch WE. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis. Am J Physiol 1987; 252 (6 Pt 1): E712–E718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mitch WE, Jurkovitz C, England BK. Mechanisms that cause protein and amino acid catabolism in uremia. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 21 (1): 91–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Papadoyannakis NJ, Stefanidis CJ, McGeown M. The effect of the correction of metabolic acidosis on nitrogen and potassium balance of patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 40 (3): 623–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lim VS, Yarasheski KE, Flanigan MJ. The effect of uraemia, acidosis, and dialysis treatment on protein metabolism: a longitudinal leucine kinetic study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13 (7): 1723–1730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Uribarri J, Buquing J, Oh MS. Acid-base balance in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Feriani M, Passlick-Deetjen J, Jaeckle-Meyer I, La Greca G. Individualized bicarbonate concentrations in the peritoneal dialysis fluid to optimize acid-base status in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (1): 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tranaeus A, for The Bicabonate/Lactate Study Group. A long-term study of a bicarbonate/lactate based peritoneal dialysis solution – clinical benefits. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 516–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Heimburger O, Mujais S. Buffer transport in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int Suppl 2003; (88): S37–S42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Graham KA, Reaich D, Channon SM, Downie S, Goodship TH. Correction of acidosis in hemodialysis decreases whole-body protein degradation. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8 (4): 632–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pickering WP, Price SR, Bircher G, Marinovic AC, Mitch WE, Walls J. Nutrition in CAPD: Serum bicarbonate and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in muscle. Kidney Int 2002; 61 (4): 1286–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Stein A, Moorhouse J, Iles-Smith H, et al. Role of an improvement in acid-base status and nutrition in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 1997; 52 (4): 1089–1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Szeto CC, Wong TY, Chow KM, Leung CB, Li PK. Oral sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomized placebo-control trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14 (8): 2119–2126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Fukuda S, Kopple JD. Uptake and release of amino acids by the kidney of dogs made chronically uremic with uranyl nitrate. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1980; 3: 248–260.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tizianello A, Deferrari G, Garibotto G, Gurreri G, Robaudo C. Renal metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. J Clin Invest 1980; 65: 1162–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Pitts RF, Macleod MB. Synthesis of serine by the dog kidney in vivo. Am J Physiol 1972; 222: 394–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Jones MR. Etiology of severe malnutrtion: results of an international cross-sectional study in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 23: 412–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lopez-Menchero R, Miguel A, Garcia-Ramon R, Perez-Contreras J. Importance of residual renal function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Its influence of different parameters of renal replacement treatment. Nephron 1999; 83: 219–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wang AYM, Sea MMM, Ip R, et al. Independent effect of residual renal function and dialysis adequacy on actual dietary protein intake, calorie, and other nutrient intake in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2450–2457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rottembourg J. Residual renal function and recovery of renal function in patients treated by CAPD. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl 40): S106–S110.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lysaght MJ, Vonesh EF, Gotch F, et al. The influence of dialysis treatment modality on the decline of remaining renal function. ASAIO Trans 1991; 37: 598–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Prasad N, Gupta A, Sharma RK, Sinha A, Kumar R. Impact of nutritional status on peritonitis in CAPD patients. Perit Dial Int 2007; 27 (1): 42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wang Q, Bernardini J, Piraino B, Fried L. Albumin at the start of peritoneal dialysis predicts the development of peritonitis. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41 (3): 664–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bannister DK, Acchiardo SR, Moore LW, Kraus AP. Nutritional effects of peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Am Diet Assoc 1987; 87: 53–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gahl G, Hain H. Nutrition and metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. In: Scarpione LL, Ballocchi S, eds. Evolution and Trends in Peritoneal Dialysis. Vol 84. Basel: Karger; 1990: 36–44.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gahl G, Gebler H, Becker H, Hain H, Kessel M. Dietary intake, peritoneal glucose absorption and nitrogen balance during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (abstract). Nephrol Dial Transplant 1987; 2: 453.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cheung AK. Biocompatibility of hemodialysis membranes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1990; 1: 150–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Betz M, Haenisch GM, Rauterberg EW, Bommer J, Ritz E. Cuprammonium membranes stimulates interleukin-1 release and archidonic acid metabolism in monocytes in the absence of complement. Kidney Int 1988; 34: 67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lonnemann G, Bingel M, Floege J, Koch KM, Shaldon S, Dinarello CA. Detection of endotoxin-like interleukin-1-inducing activity during in vitro dialysis. Kidney Int 1988; 33: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Nilsson-Thorell CB, Muscalu N, Andren AH, Kjellstrand PT, Wieslander AP. Heat sterilization of fluids for peritoneal dialysis gives rise to aldehydes. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (3): 208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Capelli JP, Kushner H, Canmiscioli TC, Chen S-M, Tores MA. Effect of intradialytic pareneteral nutrition on mortality rates in end-stage renal disease care. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 23: 808–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wolfson M. Use of nutritional supplements in dialysis patients. Semin Dial 1992; 5: 285–290.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Suliman ME, Qureshi AR, Stenvinkel P, et al. Inflammation contributes to low plasma amino acid concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82 (2): 342–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen O, Taylor HL. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press; 1950.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Smith G, Robinson PH, Fleck A. Serum albumin distribution in early treated anorexia nervosa. Nutrition 1996; 12 (10): 677–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wolfson M. Use of intradialytic parenteral nutrition in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 23 (6): 856–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    O’Keefe A, Daigle NW. A new approach to classifying malnutrition in the hemodialysis patient. J Ren Nutr 2002; 12 (4): 248–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Dinarello CA, Roubenoff RA. Mechanism of loss of lean body mass in patients on chronic dialysis. Blood Purif 1996; 14: 388–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Qureshi AR, Alvestrand A, Divino-Filho JC, et al. Inflammation, malnutrition, and cardiac disease as predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13 (suppl 1): S28–S36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Zimmermann J, Herrlinger S, Pruy A, Metzger T, Wanner C. Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 648–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kimmel PL, Phillips TM, Simmens SJ, et al. Immunologic function and survival in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Stenvinkel P, Heimburger O, Lindholm B. Wasting, but not malnutrition, predicts cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (9): 2181–2183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bergström J, Lindholm B. Malnutrition, cardiac disease, and mortality: an integrated point of view. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32 (5): 834–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wang AY, Woo J, Wang M, et al. Association of inflammation and malnutrition with cardiac valve calcification in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12 (9): 1927–1936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Stompor T, Pasowicz M, Sulowicz W, et al. An association between coronary artery calcification score, lipid profile, and selected markers of chronic inflammation in ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41: 203–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Chung SH, Heimburger O, Stenvinkel P, Wang T, Lindholm B. Influence of peritoneal transport rate, inflammation, and fluid removal on nutritional status and clinical outcome in prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23 (2): 174–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Wang AY, Sea MM, Tang N, et al. Resting energy expenditure and subsequent mortality risk in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15 (12): 3134–3143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Avesani CM, Carrero JJ, Axelsson J, Qureshi AR, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. Inflammation and wasting in chronic kidney disease: partners in crime. Kidney Int Suppl 2006; 70(104): S8–S13.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Delano MJ, Moldawer LL. The origins of cachexia in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Nutr Clin Pract 2006; 21 (1): 68–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stenvinkel P, Ketteler M, Johnson RJ, et al. IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-alpha: central factors in the altered cytokine network of uremia--the good, the bad, and the ugly. Kidney Int 2005; 67 (4): 1216–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kaizu Y, Ohkawa S, Odamaki M, et al. Association between inflammatory mediators and muscle mass in long-term hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42 (2): 295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Johansen Kl, Kaysen GA, Young BS, Hung AM, da Silva M, Chertow GM. Longitudinal study of nutritional status, body composition, and physical function in hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 842–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Mitch WE, Du J, Bailey JL, Price SR. Mechanisms causing muscle proteolysis in uremia: The influence of insulin and cytokines. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1999; 25 (4–6): 216–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Muscaritoli M, Costelli P, Bossola M, et al. Effects of simvastatin administration in an experimental model of cancer cachexia. Nutrition 2003; 19: 936–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Haffner SM. The metabolic syndrome: inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97: 3A–11A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gonzalez AS, Guerrero DB, Soto MB, Diaz SP, Martinez-Olmos M, Vidal O. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the inflammation markers C-reactive protein and ferritin. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60 (6): 802–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science 1993; 259 (5091): 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Yazdani-Biuki B, Stelzl H, Brezinschek HP, et al. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant subjects during prolonged treatment with the anti-TNF-alpha antibody infliximab. Eur J Clin Invest 2004; 34 (9): 641–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tsigos C, Kyrou I, Chala E, et al. Circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations are higher in abdominal versus peripheral obesity. Metabolism 1999; 48 (10): 1332–1335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Senn JJ, Klover PJ, Nowak IA, Mooney RA. Interleukin-6 induces cellular insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Diabetes 2002; 51 (12): 3391–3399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Pupim LB, Flakoll PJ, Majchrzak KM, Aftab Guy DL, Stenvinkel P, Ikizler TA. Increased muscle protein breakdown in chronic hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 2005; 68 (4): 1857–1865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pupim LB, Heimburger O, Qureshi AR, Ikizler TA, Stenvinkel P. Accelerated lean body mass loss in incident chronic dialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 2005; 68 (5): 2368–2374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Avesani CM, Cuppari L, Silva AC, et al. Resting energy expenditure in pre-dialysis diabetic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16 (3): 556–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Buttgereit F, Burmester GR, Brand MD. Bioenergetics of immune functions: Fundamental and therapeutic aspects. Immunol Today 2000; 21 (4): 192–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Chiolero R, Revelly JP, Tappy L. Energy metabolism in sepsis and injury. Nutrition 1997; 13 (suppl 9): 45S–51S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Utaka S, Avesani CM, Draibe SA, Kamimura MA, Andreoni S, Cuppari L. Inflammation is associated with increased energy expenditure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82 (4): 801–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, McAllister CJ, Humphreys MH, Kopple JD. Appetite and inflammation, nutrition, anemia, and clinical outcome in hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80 (2): 299–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Stenvinkel P, Pecoits-Filho R, Lindholm B. Leptin, ghrelin and proinflammatory cytokines: compounds with nutritional impact in chronic kidney disease. Adv Ren Replace Ther 2003; 10: 332–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Mak RH, Cheung W, Cone RD, Marks DL. Orexigenic and anorexigenic mechanisms in the control of nutrition in chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20 (3): 427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Chen K, Li F, Cai H, et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nature Med 2006; 12: 425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35 (suppl 2): S1–S140.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kopple JD. The national kidney foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for dietary protein intake for chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38 (suppl 1): S68–S73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Coburn JW. Metabolic balance studies and dietary protein requirements in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1982; 21: 849–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Giordano C, De Santo NG, Pluvio M, et al. Protein requirement of patients on CAPD: a study on nitrogen balance. Int J Artif Organs 1980; 3 (1): 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Sutton D, Talbot ST, Stevens JM. Is there a relationship between diet and nutrition status in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients? Perit Dial Int 2001; 21 (suppl 3): S168–S173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Lim VS, Flanigan MJ. Protein intake in patients with renal failure: comments on the current NKF-DOQI guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. Semin Dial 2001; 14 (3): 150–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Dombros N, Dratwa M, Feriani M, et al. European best practice guidelines for peritoneal dialysis. 8 Nutrition in peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20 (suppl 9): ix28–ix33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Blake PG. Urea kinetic modelling is of no proven benefit. Semin Dial 1992; 5: 193–196.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Randerson DH, Chapman GV, Farrell PC. Amino acids and dietary status in CAPD patients. In: Atkins RC, Thomson NM, Farrell PC, eds. Peritoneal Dialysis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1981: 179–191.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Bergström J, Heimbürger O, Lindholm B. Calculation of the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance from urea appearance. Which formulas should be used? Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 467–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Marckmann P. Dialysepatienters kost bestemt ved 7 dages kostregistrering. Ugeskr Laeger 1990; 152: 317–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Leavey SF, Strawderman RL, Jones CA, Port FK, Held PJ. Simple nutritional indicators as independent predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 997–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Jones CA, McQuillan GM, Kusek JW, et al. Serum creatinine levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32 (6): 992–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Metropolitan height and weight tables. Stat Bull. 1983; 64.:Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Gilmour ER, Hartley GH, Goodship THJ. Trace elements and vitamins in renal disease. In: Mitch WE, Klahr S, eds. Nutrition and the Kidney. Boston: Little, Brown and Co; 1993: 114–131.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Chazot C, Kopple JD. Vitamin metabolism and requirements in renal disease and renal failure. In: Kopple JD, Massry SG, eds. Nutritional Management of Renal Disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1997: 415–477.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kopple JD, Hirschberg R. Nutrition and peritoneal dialysis. In: Mitch WE, Klahr S, eds. Nutrition and the Kidney. Boston: Little, Brown and Co; 1993: 114–131.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Boeshoten EW, Schriever J, Krediet RT, Schreurs WHP, Arisz L. Deficiences of vitamins in CAPD patients: the effect of supplementation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1988; 2: 187–193.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Chen TW, Huang TP. Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 941–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kopple JD, Mercurio K, Blumenkrantz MJ, et al. Daily requirement for pyridoxine supplements in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 1981; 19: 694–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Kleiner MJ, Tate SS, Sullivan JF, Charmi J. Vitamin B6 deficiency in maintenance dialysis patients: Metabolic effects of repletion. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 1612–1619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Henderson IS, Leung ACT, Shenkin A. Vitamin status in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4: 143–145.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Arnadottir M, Brattstrom L, Simonsen O, et al. The effect of high-dose pyridoxine and folic acid supplementation on serum lipid and plasma homocysteine concentrations in dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 1993; 40 (4): 236–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Boeshoten EW, Schriever J, Krediet RT, Arisz L. Vitamin deficiences in CAPD patients. Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4 (suppl): S7.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in end stage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2000; 356: 1213–1218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Mitch WE, Maroni BJ. Factors causing malnutrition in patients with chronic uremia. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33 (1): 176–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Szeto CC, Wong TY, Chow KM, et al. The impact of increasing daytime dialysis exchange frequency on the peritoneal dialysis adequacy and dietary protein intake in anuric Chinese patients (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 457A.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Boeshoten EW, Zuyderhoudt FMJ, Krediet RT, Arisz L. Changes in weight and lipid concentrations during CAPD treatment. Perit Dial Int 1988; 8: 19–24.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Fenton SS, Johnston N, Delmore T, et al. Nutritional assessment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. ASAIO Trans 1987; 33: 650–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Numata M, Yamamoto H, Kawaguchi Y, et al. A study of association between lean body mass and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1999; 41: 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Fernström A, Hylander B, Moritz Å, Jacobsson H, Rössner S. Increase of intra-abdominal fat in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 166–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Goodship THJ, Lloyd S, Clague MB, Bartlett K, Ward MK. Whole body leucine turnover and nutritional status in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Sci 1987; 73: 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Schilling H, Wu G, Petit J, et al. Nutritional status of patients on long-term CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 1985; 5: 12–18.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Heide B, Pierratos A, Khanna R, et al. Nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Perit Dial Bull 1983; 3: 138–141.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Davies SJ, Phillips L, Griffiths AM, Russel LH, Naish PF, Russell GI. What really happens to people on long-term peritoneal dialysis? Kidney Int 1998; 54: 2207–2217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Camerini C, et al. Is CAPD competitive with hemodialysis for long-term treatment of uremic patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1989; 4: 244–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Viglino G, Gallo M, Cottino R, et al. Assessment of nutritional status of CAPD patients during five-year follow-up. In: Ota K, Maher JF, Winchester JF, Hirszel P, Ito K, Suzuki T, eds. Current Concepts in Peritoneal Dialysis. Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis, Kyoto, July 21–24, 1990. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1992: 497–505.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Faller B, Lameire N. Evolution of clinical parameters and peritoneal function in a cohort of CAPD patients followed over 7 years. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9: 280–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Jolly S, Chatatalsingh C, Bargman J, Vas S, Chu M, Oreopoulos DG. Excessive weight gain during peritoneal dialysis. Int J Artif Organs 2001; 24: 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wolfson M, Piraino B, Hamburger RJ, Morton AR, for the Icodextrin Study Group. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 1055–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Davies SJ, Woodrow G, Donovan K, et al. Icodextrin improves the fluid status of peritoneal dialysis patients: results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 2338–2344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Gokal R, King J, Bogle S, et al. Outcome in patients on continuous abulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: 4-year analysis of a prospective multicentre study. Lancet 1987; ii: 1105–1109.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Johansson A-C, Haraldsson B. Body composition and comorbidity in long term peritoneal dialysis (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 210A.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Dagogo-Jack S, Ovalle F, Geary B, Landt M, Coyne DW. Hyperleptinaemia in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Merabet E, Dagogo-Jack S, Coyne DW, et al. Increased plasma leptin concentrations in end-stage renal disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 847–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Kaizu Y, Kimura M, Yoneyama T, Miyaji K, Hibi I, Kumagai H. Interleukin-6 may mediate malnutrition in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD. Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 27–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Johansson A-C, Samuelsson O, Attman P-O, Bosaeus I, Haraldsson B. Limitations in anthropometric calculations of total body water in patients on peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 568–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Arkouche W, Fouque D, Pachiaudi C, et al. Total body water and body composition in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 1906–1914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Enia G, Mallamaci F, Benedetto FA, et al. Long-term CAPD patients are volume expanded and display more severe left ventricular hypertrophy than haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 1459–1464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Lameire N. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure control in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: S394–S395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Menon MK, Naimark DM, Bargman JM, Vas SI, Oreopoulos DG. Long-term blood pressure control in a cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients and its association with residual renal function. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 2207–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Heimbürger O, Wang T, Lindholm B. Alterations in water and solute transport with time on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19 (suppl 2): S83–S90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Konings CJ, Kooman JP, Schonck M, et al. Effect of icodextrin on volume status, blood pressure and echocardiographic parameters: a randomized study. Kidney Int 2003; 63 (4): 1556–1563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Stunkard AJ, Harris JR, Pederson NL, McClearn GE. The body-mass index in twins who have been reared apart. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1483–1487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC, et al. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 467–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Bogardus C, Lillioja S, Ravussin E, et al. Familial dependence of the resting metabolic rate. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Walder K, Norman RA, Hanson RL, et al. Association between uncoupling protein polymorphism (UCP2-UCP3) and energy expenditure/obesity in Pima indians. Hum Mol Gen 1998; 7: 1431–1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Nordfors L, Hoffstedt J, Nyberg B, et al. Reduced gene expression of UCP2 but not UCP3 in skeletal muscle of human obese subjects. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 935–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Schrauwen P, Walder K, Ravussin E. Human uncoupling proteins and obesity. Obes Res 1999; 7: 97–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Nordfors L, Heimbürger O, Lönnqvist F, et al. Fat tissue accumulation during peritoneal dialysis is associated with a polymorphism in uncoupling protein 2. Kidney Int 2000; 57: 1713–1719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Fleischmann E, Teal N, Dudley J, May W, Bower JD, Salahudeen AK. Influence of excess weight on mortality and hospital stay in 1346 hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 1560–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Abbott KC, Salahudeen AK, Kilpatrick RD, Horwich TB. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81 (3): 543–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Beddhu S, Pappas LM, Ramkumar N, Samore MH. Effects of body size and body composition on survival in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 2366–2372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Snyder JJ, Foley RN, Gilbertson DT, Vonesh EF, Collins AJ. Body size and outcomes on peritoneal dialysis in the United States. Kidney Int 2003; 64 (5): 1838–1844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Araujo IC, Kamimura MA, Draibe SA, et al. Nutritional parameters and mortality in incident hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2006; 16 (1): 27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    McDonald SP, Collins JF, Johnson DW. Obesity is associated with worse peritoneal dialysis outcomes in the Australia and New Zealand patient populations. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14 (11): 2894–2901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Nawrocki A, Scherer PE. The delicate balance between fat and muscle: adipokines in metabolic disease and musculoskeletal inflammation. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2004; 4: 281–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Lori L, Friedman JM. Positional cloning of the mouse gene and its human homolouge. Nature 1994; 372: 425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Axelsson J, Qureshi AR, Heimburger O, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P, Barany P. Body fat mass and serum leptin levels influence epoetin sensitivity in patients with ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46 (4): 628–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2005; 115 (5): 1111–1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Ducy P, Amling M, Takeda S, et al. Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: a central control of bone mass. Cell 2000; 100 (2): 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Cao Q, Mak KM, Lieber CS. Leptin enhances alpha1(I) collagen gene expression in LX-2 human hepatic stellate cells through JAK-mediated H2O2-dependent MAPK pathways. J Cell Biochem 2006; 97 (1): 188–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Parhami F, Tintut Y, Ballard A, Fogelman AM, Demer LL. Leptin enhances the calcification of vascular cells: artery wall as a target of leptin. Circ Res 2001; 88: 954–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Stenvinkel P, Marchlewska A, Pecoits-Filho R, et al. Adiponectin in renal disease: relationship to phenotype and genetic variation in the gene encoding adiponectin. Kidney Int 2004; 65 (1): 274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Zoccali F, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G, et al. Adiponectin, metabolic risk factors, and cardiovascular events among patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 134–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Diez JJ, Iglesias P, Fernandez-Reyes MJ, et al. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and their relationship with cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005; 62 (2): 242–249.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Osawa H, Onuma H, Ochi M, et al. Resistin SNP-420 determines its monocyte mRNA and serum levels inducing type 2 diabetes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 335 (2): 596–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Filippidis G, Liakopoulos V, Mertens PR, et al. Resistin serum levels are increased but not correlated with insulin resistance in chronic hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif 2005; 23 (6): 421–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2003; 112 (12): 1821–1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW, Jr. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. Dec 2003; 112(12):1796–1808.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 2003; 112 (12): 1785–1788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Kopple JD, Bernard D, Messana J, et al. Treatment of malourished CAPD patients with an amino acid based dialysate. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 1148–1157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Levine JA, Morgan MY. Assessment of dietary intake in man: a review of available methods. J Nutr Med 1991; 2: 65–81.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Griffiths A, Russell L, Breslin M, Russell G, Davies S. A comparison of two methods of dietary assessment in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 1999; 9 (1): 26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Kopple JD, Jones MR, Keshaviah PR, et al. A proposed glossary for dialysis kinetics. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26: 963–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Lindholm B, Heimbürger O, Ahlberg M, Werynski A, Waniewski J. Urea kinetic modelling in peritoneal dialysis. In: Lopot F, ed. Urea Kinetic Modelling. Vol 4. Ruddervoorde: EDTNA-ERCA; 1990: 134–146.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Ikizler TA. Protein and energy: recommended intake and nutrient supplementation in chronic dialysis patients. Semin Dial 2004; 17 (6): 471–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Alvestrand A, Ahlberg M, Furst P, Bergstrom J. Clinical results of long-term treatment with a low protein diet and a new amino acid preparation in patients with chronic uremia. Clin Nephrol 1983; 19 (2): 67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Garibotto G, Defarrari G, Robaudo C, et al. Effects of a new amino acid supplement on blood AA pools in patients with chronic renal failure. Amino Acids 1991; 1: 319–329.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Eustace JA, Coresh J, Kutchey C, et al. Randomized double-blind trial of oral essential amino acids for dialysis-associated hypoalbuminemia. Kidney Int 2000; 57 (6): 2527–2538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Shimomura A, Tahara D, Azekura H. Nutritional improvement in elderly CAPD patients with additional high protein foods. In: Khanna R, Nolph KD, Prowant BF, Twardowski ZJ, Oreopoulos DG, eds. Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis 1993. Vol 9. Toronto: Peritoneal Publications, Inc.; 1993: 80–86.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Boudville N, Rangan A, Moody H. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41 (3): 658–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Gonzalez-Espinoza L, Gutierrez-Chavez J, del Campo FM, et al. Randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement to patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2005; 25 (2): 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Teixido-Planas J, Ortiz A, Coronel F, et al. Oral protein-energy supplements in peritoneal dialysis: a multicenter study. Perit Dial Int 2005; 25 (2): 163–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Rubin J. Nutritional support during peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1990; 15: 551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Jones MR, Gehr TW, Burkart JM, et al. Replacement of amino acid and protein losses with 1.1% amino acid peritoneal dialysis solution. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18 (2): 210–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Park MS, Heimbürger O, Bergström J, Waniewski J, Werynski A, Lindholm B. Peritoneal transport during dialysis with amino acid-based solutions. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 280–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Jones M, Hagen T, Boyle CA, et al. Treatment of malnutrition with 1.1% amino acid peritoneal dialysis solution: results of a multicenter outpatient study. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32 (5): 761–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Li FK, Chan LY, Woo JC, et al. A 3-year, prospective, randomized, controlled study on amino acid dialysate in patients on CAPD. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42 (1): 173–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Tattersall JE, Doyle S, Greenwood RN, Farrington K. Kinetic modelling and underdialysis in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8: 535–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Bargman J, Thorpe KE, Churchill DN, for the CANUSA Peritoneal Dialysis study group. Relative contributions of residual renal function and peritoneal clearance to adequacy of dialysis: a reanalysis of the CANUSA study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2158–2162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Paniagua R, Amato D, Ramos A, Vonesh EF, Mujais SK, for the Mexican Nephrology Collaborative Study Group. Summary results from the Mexican adequacy (ADEMEX) clinicla trial on mortality and morbidity in peritoneal dialysis (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 235A.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Burkart J, Jordan J, Garchow S, Jones M. Using a computer kinetic modelling program to prescribe PD (abstract). Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl 1): S77.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Harty JC, Boulton H, Uttley L, Venning M, Gokal R. Limitations of modelling dialysis therapy in CAPD: the impact of increasing dialysis prescription (abstract). Perit Dial Int 1995; 15 (suppl 1): S40.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Williams P, Jones J, Marriott J. Do increases in dialysis dose in CAPD patients lead to nutritional improvements? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9 (12): 1841–1842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Chan M, Brown M. Renal Nutrition Clinical Practice – a Continuous Quality Improvement Process. Paper presented at: Dietitians Association of Australia, 21st national conference, 2003.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Leon JB, Albert JM, Gilchrist G, et al. Improving albumin levels among hemodialysis patients: a community-based randomized controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 48 (1): 28–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Chen W, Lu XH, Wang T. Menu suggestion: an effective way to improve dietary compliance in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2006; 16 (2): 132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Cooper BA, Barlett LH, Ryan R, Asiani A, Ibels LS, Pollock CA. Nutrineal in malnourished CAPD patients. (Abstract) Perit Dial Int 22 (Suppl 2): S14.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    ARI Guidelines. Caring for Australians with Renal Impairment. Nutrition and Growth in Kidney Disease; 2001.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Stenvinkel P, Elinder CG, Barany P. Physical activity promotes health also among dialysis patients. Int J Cardiol 2000; 72 (3): 299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Chan M, Cheema BS, Fiatarone Singh MA. Progressive resistance training and nutrition in renal failure. J Ren Nutr 2007; 17 (1): 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Castaneda C, Gordon PL, Uhlin KL, et al. Resistance training to counteract the catabolism of a low-protein diet in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135 (11): 965–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Cheema BS, O’Sullivan AJ, Chan M, Patwardhan A, Kelly J, Gillin A, Fiatarone Singh MA. Progressive resistance training during hemodialysis: rationale and method of a randomized-controlled trial. Hemodial Int 2006;10(3): 303–310.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Mehrotra R, Kopple JD. Causes of protein-energy malnutrition in chronic renal failure. In: Kopple JD, Massry SG, eds. Nutritional Management of Renal Disease. Vol 167–182. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Argiles JM, Meijsing SH, Pallares-Trujillo J, Guirao X, Lopez-Soriano FJ. Cancer cachexia: a therapeutic approach. Med Res Rev 2001; 21: 83–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Boccanfuso JA, Hutton M, McAllister B. The effects of megestrol acetate on nutritional parameters in a dialysis population. J Ren Nutr 2000; 10: 36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, et al. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20 (2): 567–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Nelson KA. Modern management of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001; 5: 250–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Golden AC, Daiello LA, Silverman MA, Llorenete M, Preston RA. University of Miami Division of clinical Pharmacology therapeutic rounds: medications used to treat anorexia in the frail elderly. Am J Ther 2003; 10: 292–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Gagnon B, Bruera E. A review of the drug treatment of cachexia associated with cancer. Drugs 1998; 55: 675–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Barany P, Pettersson E, Ahlberg M, Hultman E, Bergstrom J. Nutritional assessment in anemic hemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Clin Nephrol 1991; 35 (6): 270–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Barany P, Eriksson LC, Hultcrantz R, Pettersson E, Bergstrom J. Serum ferritin and tissue iron in anemic dialysis patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1997; 23 (3–6): 273–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Soliman G, Oreopoulos DG. Anabolic steroids and malnutrition in chronic renal failure. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 362–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Dombros N, Digenis GE, Soliman G, Oreopoulos DG. Anabolic steroids in the treatment of malnourished CAPD patients: a retrospective study. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 344–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Fine RN. Growth in children undergoing CAPD/CCPD/APD. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl 2): S247–S250.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Ziegler TR, Lazarus JM, Young LS, Hakim R, Wilmore DW. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone in adults receiving maintenance hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1991; 2: 1130–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Schulman G, Wingard RL, Hutchinson RL, Lawrence P, Hakim R. The effects of recombinant human growth hormone and intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 21: 527–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Ikizler TA, Wingard RL, Breyer JA, Schulman G, Parker RA, Hakim RM. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 1994; 46 (4): 1178–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Ikizler TA, Wingard RL, Flakoll PJ, Schulman G, Parker RA, Hakim RM. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on plasma and dialysate amino acid profiles in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 1996; 50 (1): 229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Nascimento MM, Pecoits-Filho R, Lindholm B, Riella MC, Stenvinkel P. Inflammation, malnutrition and atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease: a global perspective. Blood Purif 2002; 20: 454–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Morton MS, Arisaka O, Miyake N, Morgan LD, Evans BA. Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum from Japanese men and women over forty years of age. J Nutr 2002; 132: 168–171.Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Evans MJ, Eckert A, Lai K, Adelman SJ, Harnish DC. Reciprocal antagonism between estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB activity in vivo. Circ Res 2001; 89: 823–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Velasquez MT, Bhathena SJ. Dietary phytoestrogens: a possible role in renal disease protection. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 1056–1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    King DE, Egan BM, Geesey ME. Relation of dietary fat and fiber to elevation of C-reactive protein. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92: 1335–1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RC. Dietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tricylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRT. J Nutr Biochem 2003; 14: 513–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Kutner NG, Clow PW, Zhang R, Aviles X. Association of fish intake and survival in a cohort of incident dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 1018–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Miyata T, Ishikawa S, Asahi K, et al. 2-isopropylidenehydrazono-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylacetanilide (OPB-9195) treatment inhibits the development of intimal thickening after ballon injury of rat carotid artery: role of glycoxidation and lipooxidation reactions in vascular tissue damage. FEBS Lett 1999; 445: 202–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Suliman M, Heimburger O, Barany P, et al. Plasma pentosidine is associated with inflammation and malnutrition in end-stage renal disease patients starting on dialysis therapy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 1614–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Miyata T, Ishiguro N, Yasuda Y, et al. Increased pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product, in plasma and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its relation to inflammatory markers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 244: 45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Schwedler S, Schinzel R, Vaith P, Wanner C. Inflammation and advanced glycation end products in uremia: simple coexistence, potentiation or causal relationship? Kidney Int 2001; 59 (suppl 78): S32–S36.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Uribarri J, Peppa M, Cai W, et al. Restriction of dietary glycotoxins reduces excessive advanced glycation end products in renal failure patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 728–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Uribarri J, Peppa M, Cai W, et al. Dietary glycotoxins correlate with circulating advanced glycation end product levels in renal failure patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 532–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Forbes JM, Thallas V, Thomas MC, et al. The breakdown of preexisting advanced glycation end products is associated with reduced renal fibrosis in experimental diabetes. FASEB J 2003; 17: 1762–1764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 2002; 420: 868–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Chang JW, Yang WS, Min WK, Lee SK, Park JS, Kim SB. Effects of simvastatin on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum albumin in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 1213–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Vernaglione L, Cristofano C, Muscogiuri P, Chimienti S. Does atorvastatin influence serum C-reactive protein levels in patients on long-term hemodialysis? Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 471–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Wurfel MM, Kunitake ST, Lichenstein H, Kane JP, Wright SD. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein is carried on lipoproteins and acts as a cofactor in the neutralization of LPS. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 1025–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Rauchhaus M, Coats AJ, Anker SD. The endotoxin-lipoprotein hypothesis. Lancet 2000; 356: 930–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Liu Y, Coresh J, Eustace JA, et al. Association between cholesterol level and mortality in dialysis patients. Role of inflammation and malnutrition. JAMA. 2004; 291451–459.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Brull DJ, Sanders J, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Humphries SE, Montomery HE. Impact of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on post-coronary artery bypass interleukin 6 release. Heart 2002; 87: 252–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Stenvinkel P, Andersson A, Wang T, et al. Do ACE-inhibitors suppress tumor necrosis factor-α production in advanced chronic renal failure? J Int Med 1999; 246: 503–507.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Anker SD, Negassa A, Coats AJ, et al. Prognostic importance of weight loss in chronic heart failure and the effect of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: an observational study. Lancet 2003; 361: 1077–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Saubermann LJ, Nakajima A, Wada K, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist ligands stimulate a Th2 cytokine response and prevent acute colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2002; 8: 330–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Chinetti G, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): nuclear receptors at the crossroads between lipid metabolism and inflammation. Inflamm Res 2000; 49: 497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Wong TY, Szeto CC, Szeto CY, Lai KB, Chow KM, Li PK. Association of ENOS polymorphism with basal peritoneal membrane function in uremic patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42 (4): 781–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Stenvinkel P, Holmberg I, Heimbürger O, Diczfalusy U. A study of plasmalogen as an index of oxidative stress in patients with chronic renal failure. Evidence of increased oxidative stress in malnourished patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 2594–2600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Stenvinkel P, Pecoits-Filho R, Lindholm B. Coronary artery disease in end-stage renal disease – no longer a simple plumbing problem. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 1927–1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Jiang Q, Elson-Schwab I, Courtemanche C, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to alpha tocopherol, inhibit cycloxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97: 11494–11499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Lappas M, Permezel M, Rice GE. N-acetyl-cysteine inhibits phospholipid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokine release, protease activity, and nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity in human fetal membranes in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 1723–1729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Kinlay S, Fang JC, Hikita H, et al. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilator function. Circulation 1999; 100: 219–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Scholze A, Rinder C, Beige J, Riezler R, Zidek W, Tepel M. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure. Circulation 2004; 109: 369–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Tepel M, van der Giet M, Statz M, Jankowski J, Zidek W. The antioxidant acetylcysteine reduces cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal failure. Circulation 2003; 107: 992–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Carrero
    • 1
  • O. Heimbürger
    • 1
  • M. Chan
    • 1
  • J. Axelsson
    • 1
  • P. Stenvinkel
    • 2
  • B. Lindholm
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Renal Medicine and Baxter NovumKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and TechnologyKarolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Div. of Renal Medicine and Baxter NovumKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations