Neuropsychology and Coma Management

  • Joan W. Mayfield
  • Linda Pedersen
  • Frank Mcdonald

Stedman’s Medical Dictionary-26th Edition (1995) defines a coma as “a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to the action of an ingested toxic substance or of one formed in the body, to trauma, or to disease.” Functionally, a person is in a coma when he or she is unable to respond purposefully to stimuli in the environment.


Traumatic Brain Injury Deep Brain Stimulation Glasgow Coma Scale Vegetative State Traumatic Brain Injury Patient 


  1. Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., & Jennett, B. (2000). The neuropathology of the vegetative state after an acute brain insult. Brain, 123, 1327-1338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (1995). Neurobehavioural criteria in recommendations for use of uniform nomenclature pertinent to patients with severe alterations in consciousness. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76, 205-209.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, V. A., Catroppa, C., Morse, S., Haritou, F., & Rosenfeld, J. (2000). Recovery of intellectual ability following traumatic brain injury in childhood: Impact of injury severity and age at injury. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, 282-290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Attia, J., & Cook, D. J. (1998). Prognosis in anoxic and traumatic coma. Critical Care Clinics, 14, 497-511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashwal, S. (2005). Recovery of consciousness and life expectancy of children in a vegetative state. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 190-197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashwal, S., Eyman, E. K. & Call, T. L. (1994). Life expectancy of children in a persistent vegetative state. Pediatric Neurology, 10, 27-33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aspen Consensus Conference (March 19- 23, 1996). Workgroup on the vegetative and minimally conscious states. Given at the Biomedical Institute, Apsen, Colorado.Google Scholar
  8. Begali, V. (1987). Head Injury in children and adolescents: A resource and review for school and allied professionals (2 nd ed.). Brandon, VT: Clinical Psychology Publishing Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Boly, M., Faymonville, M. E., Peigneux, P., Lambermont, B., Damas, P., Del Fiore, G., et al. (2004). Auditory processing in severely brain injured patients: differences between the minimally conscious state and the persistent vegetative state. Archives of Neurology, 61, 233-238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boly, M., Faymonville, M. E., Peigneux, P., Lambermont, B., Damas, F., Luxen, A., et al. (2005). Cerebral processing of auditory and noxious stimuli in severely brain injured patients: Differences between VS and MCS. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 283-239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Booth, C., Boone, R. H., Tomlinson, G., & Detsky, A. S. (2004). Is this patient dead, vegetative, or severely neurologically impaired?: Assessing outcome for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 870-879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyer, M. G. & Edwards, P. (1991). Outcome 1 to 3 years after severe traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Injury, 22, 315-320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brailowsky, S., Knight, R. T., & Efron, R. (1986). Phenytoin increases the severity of cortical hemiplegia in rats. Brain Research, 376, 71-77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Casanova, E., Lazzari, R. E., Latta, S., & Mazzucchi, A. (2003). Locked-in syndrome: Improvement in the prognosis after an early intensive multi-disciplinary rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 862-867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chia, L.G. (1991). Locked-in syndrome with bilateral ventral midbrain infarcts. Neurology, 41, 445-456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cranford, R. (July 6, 1996). Misdiagnosing the persistent vegetative state. British Medical Journal, 313, 5-6.Google Scholar
  17. Feeney, D. M., Gonzalez, A., & Law, W. A. (1982) Amphetamine, haloperidol, and experience interact to affect the rate of recovery after motor cortex injury. Science, 217, 855-857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer, C., & Luaté, J. (2005). Evoked potentials for the prediction of vegetative state in the acute stage of coma. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 372-380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fischer, C., Morlet, D., Bouchet, P., Luaté, J., Jourdan, C., & Salord, F. (1999). Mismatch negativity and late auditory evoked potentials in comatose patients. Clinical Neuropsychology, 110, 1601-1610.Google Scholar
  20. Fischer, C., Luaté, J. Némoz, C., Morlet, D., Kirkorian, G., & Mauguière, F. (2006). Improved prediction of awakening or nonawakening from severe anoxic coma using tree-based classification analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 34, 1520-1524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, J., & Mathieson, C. (2001). The history of the Glasgow coma scale: Implications for practice. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 23 (4), 52-58.Google Scholar
  22. Forsyth, R., & Jayamoni, B. (2003). Noradrenergic agonists for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003984. DOI: 101002/1461858.CD003984.Google Scholar
  23. Giacino, J.T. (1997). Disorders of consciousness: Differential diagnosis and neuropathologic features. Seminars in Neurology, 17, 105-111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Giacino, J. T. (2005). The minimally conscious state: defining the borders of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 381-395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Giacino, J.T., Ashwal, S., Childs, N., Crawford, R., Jennet, B., Katz, D. I., et al. (February 2002). The minially conscious state: definition and diagnositc criteria. American Academy of Neurology, 58, 349-353.Google Scholar
  26. Giacino, J. T., & Kalmar, K. (1997). The vegetative and minimally conscious state: A comparison of clinical features and functional outcome. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 12 (4), 36-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Giacino, J. T., & Kalmer, K. (2005). Diagnostic and prognostic guidelines for the vegetative and minimally conscious states. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 166-174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Giacino, J., & Kasler, N. (1995). Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: Coma, the vegetative state, and the minimally responsive state. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10, 40-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giacino, J. T., & Trott, C. T. (2004). Rehabilitative management of patients with disorders of consciousness: grand rounds. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19, 254-265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Giacino, J. T., & Whyte, J. (2003). Amantadine to improve neurorecovery in traumatic brain injury-associated diffuse axonal injury: A pilot double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 4-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Giacino, J. T., & Whyte, J. (2005). The vegetative and minimally conscious states: current knowledge and remaining questions. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 30-50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Giacino, J. T., Kezmarsky, M. A., DeLuca, J, & Cicerone, K. D. (1991). Monitoring rate of recovery to predict outcome in minimally responsive patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72, 897-901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Giacino, J. T., Ashwal, S. A., Childs, N., Cranford, R., Jennett, B., Katz, D. I., et al. (2002). The minimally conscious state: Definition and diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 58, 349-353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Guérit, J. M. (2005). Neurophysiological patterns of vegetative and minimally conscious states. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 357-371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hagen, C., Malakmus, C., & Durham, P. (1972). Levels of cognitive functioning. Downey, CA: Rancho Los Amigos Hospital.Google Scholar
  36. Haig, A. J., & Ruess, J. M. (1990). Recovery from vegetative state of six months’ duration associated with Sinemet (levodopa/carbidopa). Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71, 1081-1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hansotia, P. L. (1985). Persistent vegetative state, Review and report of electrodiagnostic studies in eight cases. Archives of Neurology, 42, 673-682.Google Scholar
  38. Jennett B, & Plum F. (1972). Persistent vegetative state after brain damage. RN, 35, 1-4.Google Scholar
  39. Jennett, B., Adams, J. H., Murray, L. S., & Graham, D. I. (2001). Neuropathology in vegetative and severely disabled patients after head injury. Neurology, 56, 486-489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, D. A., Roething-Johnston, K., & Richards, D. (1993). Biochemical and physiological parameters of recovery in acute severe head injury: responses to multisensory stimulation. Brain Injury, 7, 491-499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jordan, K. G. (1999). Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in acute brain injury. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 332-340. Abstract.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaelin, D. L., Cifu, D. X., & Matthies, B. (1996). Methylphenidate effect on attention deficit in the acutely brain-injured adult. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 6-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kampfl, A., Schmutzhard, E., Franz, G., Pfausler, B., Haring, H. P., Ullmer, H., et al. (1998). Prediction of recovery from post-traumatic vegetative state with cerebral magnetic-resonance imaging. Lancet, 351, 1763-1767.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kotchoubey, B. (2005). Apallic syndrome is not apallic: Is vegetative state vegetative? Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 333-356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Laborde, A. & Whyte, J. (1997). Two-dimensional quantitative data analysis: assessing the functional utility of psychostimulants. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 12, 90-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lal, S., Merbitz, C. P., & Grip, J. C. (1988). Modification of function in head-injured patients with Sinemet. Brain Injury, 2, 225-233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Laureys, S., Perin, F., Faymonville, M. E., Schnakers, C., Boly, M., Bartsch, V., et al. (2004). Cerebral processing in the minimally conscious state, Neurology, 63, 916-918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Levy, D. E., Sidtis, J. J., Rottenberg, D. A., Jarden, D. O., Strother, S. C., Dhawan, V., et al. (1987). Differences in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in vegetative versus locked-in patients. Annals of Neurology, 22, 673-682. Abstract.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lezak, M. D.(1986). Psychological implications of traumatic brain damage for the patient’s family. Rehabilitation Psychology, 3(4), 241-250.Google Scholar
  50. Lombardi, F. Taricco, M., De Tanti, A., Telaro, E., & Liberati, A. (2002). Sensory stimulation of brain-injured individuals in coma or vegetative state: results of a Cochrane systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation, 16, 464-472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mahalick, D. M., Carmel, P. W., Greenberg, J. P., Mologsky, W., Brown, J. A., Heary, R. F., et al. (1998). Psychopharmacologic treatment in acquired attention disorders in children with brain injury. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 29, 121-126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Majerus, S., Gill-Thwaites, H., Andrews, K, & Laureys, S. (2005). Behavioral evaluation of consciousness in severe brain damage. In S. Laureys (Ed.). Progress in Brain Research, 150, 397-413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Meythaler, J.M., Depalma, L., Devivo, M.J., Guin-Renfroe, S., & Novack, T.A. (2001). Sertraline to improve arousal and alertness in severe traumatic brain injury secondary to motor vehicle crashes. Brain Injury, 15, 321-331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Meythaler, J. M., Brunner, R. C., Johnson, A., & Novack, T. A. (2002). Amantadine to improve neurorecovery in traumatic brain injury-associated diffuse axonal injury: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17, 300-313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell, S., Bradley, V. A., Welch, J. L., & Britton, P. G. (1990). Coma arousal procedure: A therapeutic intervention in the treatment of head injury. Brain Injury, 4, 273-279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Montes, J. M., Wong, J. H., Fayad, P.B., & Awad, I. A. (2000). Stereotactic computed tomographic-guided aspiration and thrombolysis of intracerebral hematoma: protocol and preliminary experience. Stroke, 31, 834-840. Abstract.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Multi-Society Task Force on PVS (1994). Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1499-1508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nickels, J. L, Schneider, W. N., Dobovy, M. L., & Wong, T. M. (1994). Clinical use of amantadine in brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 8, 709-718.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Owen, A. M., Coleman, M. R., Menon, D. K., Johnsrude, I. S., Rodd, J. M., Davis, M. H., et al. (2005). Residual auditory function in persistent vegetative state: A combined PET and fMRI study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 290-306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Parvizi, J. & Damasio, A.R. (2003). Neuroanatomical correlates of brainstem coma. Brain, 126, 1524-1536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Patterson, J. R., & Grabois, M. (1986). Locked-in syndrome: A review of 139 cases. Stroke, 17, 758-764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Passler, M. A., & Riggs, R. V. (2001). Positive outcomes in traumatic brain injury-vegetative state: Patients treated with bromocriptine. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 311-315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Perrin, F., Schnakers, C., Schabus, M., Degueldre, C., Goldman, S., Brédart, S., et al. (2006). Brain response to one’s own name in vegetative state, minimally conscious state and locked-in syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 63, 562-569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pickard, J. D. (2004). Part II: Functional imaging, electrophysiology and mechanical intervention. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 272-275.Google Scholar
  65. Pillai, S., Praharaj, S. S., Mohanty, A., & Kolluri, V. R. (2001). Prognostic factors in children with severe diffuse brain injuries: A study of 74 patients. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 34, 98-103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Plenger, P. M., Dixon, C. E., Castillo, R. M., Frankowski, R. F., Yablon, S. A., & Levin, H. S. (1996). Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to moderately severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 536-540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Prassad, M. R., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Swank, P. R., & Kramer, L. (2002). Predictors of outcome following traumatic brain injury in young children. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 36, 64-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Raimondi, A. J., & Hirschauer, J. (1984). Head injury in the infant and toddler. Coma scoring and outcome scale. Child’s Brain, 11, 12-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rappaport, M., Hall, K. M., Hopkins, K., Belleza, T., Cope, D. N. (March 1982). Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: Coma to community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63(3), 118-123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rappaport, M., Doughtery, A. M., & Kelting, D. L. (July 1992). Evaluation of coma and vegetative states. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 628-634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Reinhard, D., Whyte, J. & Sandel, M. (1996). Improved arousal and initiation following tricyclic antidepressant use in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 80-83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Robinson, L. R., Micklesen, B. S., Tirschwell, M. D., & Lew, M. D. (2003). Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for awakening from coma. Critical Care Medicine, 31, 960-967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rosenthal, M., Griffith, E. R., Bond, M. R., & Miller, J. D. (Eds.). (1983). Rehabilitation of the head injured adult. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  74. Schiff, N., Ribary, U., Moreno, D. R., Beattie, B., Kronberg, E., Blasberg, R., (2002). Residual cerebral activity and behavioural fragments can remain in the persistently vegetative brain. Brain, 125, 1210-1234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Schiff, N. D., Rodriguez-Moreno, D., Kamal, A., Kim, K. H. S., Giacino, J. T., Plum, F., et al. (2005). fMRI reveals large-scale network activation in minimally conscious patients. Neurology, 64, 514-523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Schallert, T., Hernandez, T. D., & Barth, T. D. (1986). Recovery of function after brain damage: Severe and chronic disruption by diazepam. Brain Research, 379, 104-111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Schnakers, C., Majerus, S., & Laureys, S. (2005). Bispectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals during recovery from coma: Preliminary findings. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 381-388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Schneider, W. N., Drew-Cates, J., Wong, T. M., & Dombovy, M. L. (1999). Cognitive and behavioural efficacy of amantadine in acute traumatic brain injury: an initial double-blind placebo-controlled study. Brain Injury, 13, 863-872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Schuaib, A., Mahmood, R. H., Wishart, T., Kanthan, R., Murabit, M. A., Ijaz, S., et al. (1995). Neuroprotective effects of lamotrigine in global ischemia in gerbils. A histological, in vivo microdialysis and behavioral study. Brain Research, 1995, 199-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shewmon, D. A. (2000a). Coma prognosis in children. Part I: Definitional and methodological challenges. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17, 457-466.Google Scholar
  81. Shewmon, D. A. (2000b). Coma prognosis in children. Part II: Clinical Application. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17, 467-472.Google Scholar
  82. Shewmon, D. A., & DeGiorgio, C. M. (1989). Early prognosis in anoxic coma. In J. L. Bernat (Ed.), Ethical issues in neurological practice: Neurologic clinics (Vol. 7, pp. 823-843). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Sanders.Google Scholar
  83. Shiel, A., & Wilson, B. A. (2005). Can behaviors observed in the early states of recovery after traumatic brain injury predict poor outcome? Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 494-502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Showalter, P. E., & Kimmel, D. (2000). Stimulating consciousness and cognition following severe brain injury: a new potential clinical use for lamotrigine. Brain Injury, 14, 997-1001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Smith, E., & Delargy, M. (February 19, 2005). Locked-in syndrome. British Medical Journal, 330, 406-409.Google Scholar
  86. Sterm, S. C. (1996). Classification of head injury. In R. K. Narayan, J. E. Wilberger, & J. T. Povlishock (Eds.), Neurotrauma (pp. 31-41). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  87. Stevens, R. D., & Bhardwaj, M. D. (2006). Approach to comatose patient. Critical Care Medicine, 34, 31-41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Strauss, D. J., Shavelle, R. M. & Ashwal, S. (1999). Life expectancy and median survival time in the permanent vegetative state. Pediatric Neurology, 21, 626-631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Strauss, D. J., Ashwal, S., Day, S. M., & Shavelle, R. M. (2000). Life expectancy of children in vegetative and minimally conscious states. Pediatric Neurology, 23, 1-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, ii, 81-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wade, D. T. (October 12, 1996). Misdiagnosing the persistent vegetative state: Persistent vegetative state should not be diagnosed until 12 months from onset of coma (letter). British Medical Journal. 313, 943-944.Google Scholar
  92. Walker-Batson, D., Smith, P., Cutis, S., Unwin, H., & Greenlee, R. (1995). Amphetamine paired with physical therapy accelerates motor recovery after stroke-further evidence. Stroke, 26, 2254-2259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. WeeFIM System Clinical Guide: Version 5.01 (1998). University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.Google Scholar
  94. Whyte, J., Vaccaro, M., Grieb-Neff, P., & Hart, T. (2002). Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17, 284-299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Whyte, J., Hart, T., Vaccaro, M., Grieb-Neff, P., Risser, A., Polansky, M., et al. (2004). Effects of Methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: A multidimensional, randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83, 401-420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Whyte, J., Katz, D, Long, D., DiPasquale, M. C., Polansky, M., Kalmar, K., et al. (2005). Predictors of outcome in prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness and assessment of medication effects: A multicenter study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 453-462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Wijdicks, E. F. M., & Cranford, R. E. (August 2005). Clinical diagnosis of prolonged states of impaired consciousness in adults. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 80(8), 1037-1046.Google Scholar
  98. Wong, P. P., Monette, G., & Weiner, N. I. (2001). Mathematical models of cognitive recovery. Brain Injury, 15, 519-530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wood, R. L. (1991). Critical analysis of the concept of sensory stimulation for patients in vegetative states. Brain Injury, 5, 401-409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Worzniak, M., Fetters, M., & Comfort, M. (1997). Methylphenidate in the treatment of coma. Journal of Family Practice, 44, 495-498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Yamamoto, T. & Katayama, Y. (2005). Deep brain stimulation therapy for the vegetative state. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 406-413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Young, G. B. (2000). The EEG in Coma. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17, 473-485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zafonte, R. D, Watanabe, T. & Mann, N. R. (1998). Amantadine: a potential treatment for the minimally conscious state. Brain Injury, 12, 617-621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Zandbergen, E. G., de Haan, R. J., Stoutenbeek, C. P., Koelman, J. H., & Hijdra, A. (1998). Systematic review of early prediction of poor outcome in anoxic-ischaemic coma. Lancet, 352, 1808-1812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Zandbergen, E. G., de Haan, R. J., Koelman, J. H., & Hijdra, A. (2000). Prediction of poor outcome in anoxic-ischemic coma. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17, 498-501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan W. Mayfield
    • 1
  • Linda Pedersen
    • 2
  • Frank Mcdonald
    • 1
  1. 1.Our Children’s House at BaylorDallas
  2. 2.Lewisville Independent School DistrictLewisville

Personalised recommendations