Development of Cerebral Lateralization in Children

Lateral asymmetry prevails at levels of organization that range from subatomic particles to the human body and brain.


Down Syndrome Left Hemisphere Hand Preference Dyslexic Child Dichotic Listening 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Affleck, G., & Joyce, P. (1979). Sex differences in the association of cerebral hemisphere specialization of spatial function with conservation task performance. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134, 271-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, G., Quinn, P. T., & Sorby, A. (1972). Stuttering: An investigation into cerebral dominance for speech. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 35, 414-418.Google Scholar
  3. Annett, M. (1973). Handedness in families. Annals of Human Genetics, 37, 93-105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aram, D. M., & Eisele, J. A. (1994). Intellectual stability in children with unilateral brain lesions. Neuropsychologia, 32(1) , 85-95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aram, D. M., Ekelman, B. L., Rose, D. F., & Whitaker, H. A. (1985). Verbal and cognitive sequelae following unilateral lesions acquired in early childhood. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 7, 55-78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakan, P. (1971). Handedness and birth order. Nature, 229, 195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakker, D. J., Van der Vlugt, H., & Claushuis, M. (1978). The reliability of dichotic ear asymmetry in normal children. Neuropsychologia, 16, 753-758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakker, D. J., Licht, R., Kok, A., & Bouma, A. (1980). Cortical responses to word reading by right- and left-eared normal and reading-disturbed children. Neuropsychologia, 2, 1-12.Google Scholar
  9. Barrera, M. E., Dalrymple, A., & Witelson, S. F. (1978). Behavioral evidence of right hemisphere asymmetry in early infancy. Paper presented to the Canadian Psychological Association, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  10. Basser, S. (1962). Hemiplegia of early onset and the faculty of speech with special reference to the effects of hemispherectomy. Brain, 85, 427-460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bates, E., O’Connell, B., Vaid, J., Sledge, P., & Oakes, L. (1986). Language and hand preference in early development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 2, 1-15.Google Scholar
  12. Best, C. T., Hoffman, H., & Glanville, B. B. (1982). Development of infant ear asymmetries for speech and music. Perception and Psychophysics, 35, 75-85.Google Scholar
  13. Blomgren, M., Nagarajan, M. R. I., Lee, J. N., Li, T., & Aloord, L. (2003). Preliminary results of a functional MRI study of brain activation patterns in stuttering and nonstuttering speakers during a lexical access task. Journal of Fluency Disorders 28, 337-356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouma, H., & Legein, C. P. (1977). Foveal and parafoveal recognition of letters by dyslexics and average readers. Neuropsychologia, 15, 69-80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradshaw-McAnulty, G., Hicks, R. E., & Kinsbourne, M. (1984). Pathological left-handedness and familial sinistrality in relation to degree of mental retardation. Brain and Cognition, 3, 349-356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Braitenberg, V. (1977). The concept of symmetry in neuroanatomy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 299, 186-196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Braitenberg, V., & Kemali, M. (1970). Exceptions to bilateral symmetry in the epithalamus of lower vertebrates. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 138, 137-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bresson, F., Maury, L., Pierant-LeBonniec, G., & deSchonen, S. (1977). Organization and lateralization of reaching in infants: An instance of asymmetric functions in hand collaborations. Neuropsychologia, 15, 311-320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryden, M. P., & Allard, F. A. (1981). Do auditory perceptual asymmetries develop? Cortex, 17, 313-318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bryden, M. P., Hécaen, H., & DeAgostini, M. (1983). Patterns of cerebral organization. Brain and Language, 20, 249-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caplan, P. J., & Kinsbourne, M. (1976). Baby drops the rattle: Asymmetry of duration grasp by infants. Child Development, 47, 532-534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Caplan, P. J., & Kinsbourne, M. (1982). Cerebral lateralization, preferred cognitive mode, and reading ability in normal children. Brain and Language, 14, 349-370.Google Scholar
  23. Carey, S., & Diamond, R., (1994). Are faces perceived as configurations more by adults than by children? Visual Perception, 1, 253-274.Google Scholar
  24. Chi, J. G., Dooling, E. C., & Gilles, F. H. (1977). Left-right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus. Archives of Neurology, 34, 346-348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chilosi, A. M., Pecini, C., Cipriani, P., Brovedani, P., Brizzolara, D., Ferretti, G., et al. (2005). Atypical language lateralization and early linguistic development in children with focal brain lesions. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47, 725-730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Churchill, J. A., Igna, E., & Senf, R. (1962). The association of position at birth and handedness. Pediatrics, 29, 307-309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, A. I. (1966). Hand preference and developmental status of infants. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 108, 337-345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Colby, K. M., & Parkinson, C. (1977). Handedness in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 3-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Crawford, S. G., Kaplan, B. J., & Kinsbourne, M. (1994). Are families of children with reading difficulties at risk for immune disorders and nonrighthandedness? Cortex, 30, 281-292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Davidson, R. J., & Fox, N. (1982). Asymmetrical brain activity discriminates between positive versus negative affective stimuli in ten month old infants. Science, 218, 1235-1236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dehaene-Lambertz G., Dehaene, S., & Hertz-Pannier, L. (2002). Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science, 298, 2013-2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dennis, M., & Kohn, B. (1975). Comprehension of syntax in infantile hemiplegics after cerebral hemidecortification: Left hemisphere superiority. Brain and Language, 2, 475-486.Google Scholar
  33. Entus, A. K. (1977). Hemispheric asymmetry in processing of dichotically presented speech and nonspeech stimuli by infants. In S. J. Segalowitz & F. A. Gruber (Eds.), Language development and neurological theory (pp. 63-73). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Etaugh, C., & Levy, R. B. (1981). Hemispheric specialization for tactile-spatial processing in preschool children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 621-622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Falzi, G., Perrone, P., & Vignolo, L. A. (1982). Right-left asymmetry in anterior speech region. Archives of Neurology, 39, 239-240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fein, D., Humes, M., Kaplan, E., & Lucci-Waterhouse, L. (1984). The question of the left hemisphere dysfunction in infantile autism. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 258-281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferro, J. M., Martins, I. P., & Tavora, L. (1984). Neglect in children. Annals of Neurology, 15, 281-284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Flanery, R. C., & Balling, J. D. (1979). Developmental changes in hemispheric specialization for tactile spatial ability. Developmental Psychology, 15, 364-372.Google Scholar
  39. Fried, I., Tanguay, P. E., Boder, E., Doubleday, C., & Greensite, M. (1981). Developmental dyslexia: Electrophysiological evidence of clinical subgroup. Brain and Language, 12, 14-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Galaburda, A. M. (1984). Anatomical asymmetries. In N. Geschwind & A. M. Galaburda (Eds.), Cerebral dominance: The biological foundations (pp. 11-25). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Galaburda, A. M., Sherman, G. F., Rosen, G. D., Aboitiz, F., & Geschwind, N. (1985). Developmental dyslexia: Four consecutive patients with cortical anomalies. Annals of Neurology, 18(2), 222-233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gardner, M. (1967). The ambidextrous universe. Baltimore: Penguin.Google Scholar
  43. Geffen, G. (1978). The development of the right ear advantage in dichotic listening with focused attention. Cortex, 14, 169-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Geffen, G., & Wale, J. (1979). Development of selective listening in hemispheric asymmetry. Developmental Psychology, 15, 138-146.Google Scholar
  45. Geschwind, N., & Behan, P. (1982). Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 79, 5097-5100.Google Scholar
  46. Geschwind, N., & Levitsky, W. (1968). Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science, 161, 186-187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gesell, A., & Ames, L. (1947). The development of handedness. Journal of General Psychology, 70, 155-157.Google Scholar
  48. Govind, C. K., & Pearce, J. (1986). Differential reflex activity determines claw and clasper muscle asymmetry in developing lobsters. Science, 33, 354-356.Google Scholar
  49. Halverson, H. (1937). Studies of the grasping responses of early infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 51, 371-424.Google Scholar
  50. Hartley, X. Y. (1981). Lateralization of speech stimuli in young Down’s syndrome children. Cortex, 17, 241-248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hauser, M. D. (1996). The evolution of communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hawn, P. R., & Harris, L. J. (1983). Hand differences in grasp duration and reaching in two- and five-month-old infants. In G. Young, S. Segalowitz, C. M. Cotter, & S. E. Trehub (Eds.), Manual specialization and the developing brain. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Harrington, A. (1987). Medicine, mind and the double brain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hegstrom R. A. & Kondepudi, D. K. (1990). The handedness of the universe. Scientific American, 262, 108-115.Google Scholar
  55. Hicks, R. E., & Barton, A. (1975). A note on left-handedness and severity of mental retardation. Journal of General Psychology, 127, 323-324.Google Scholar
  56. Hicks, R. E., & Kinsbourne, M. (1978). Lateralized concomitants of human handedness. Journal of Motor Behavior, 10, 83-94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hiscock, M., & Kinsbourne, M. (1977). Selective listening asymmetry in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 13, 217-224.Google Scholar
  58. Hiscock, M., & Kinsbourne, M. (1978). Ontogeny of cerebral dominance: Evidence from time-sharing asymmetry in children. Developmental Psychology, 16, 70-82.Google Scholar
  59. Hiscock, M., & Kinsbourne, M. (1980a). Asymmetries of selective listening and attention switching in children. Developmental Psychology, 16, 70-82.Google Scholar
  60. Hiscock, M., & Kinsbourne, M. (1980b). Asymmetry of verbal-manual time-sharing in children: A follow-up study. Neuropsychologia, 18, 151-162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hiscock, M., & Kinsbourne, M. (1995). Progress in the measurement of laterality and implications for dyslexia research. Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 249-268.Google Scholar
  62. Hiscock, M., Kinsbourne, M., Caplan, B., & Swanson, J. M. (1979). Auditory attention in hyperactive children: Effects of stimulant medication on dichotic listening performance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88, 27-32. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hiscock, M., Hampson, E., Wong, S. C. P., & Kinsbourne, M. (1985). Effects of eye movements on the recognition and localization of dichotic stimuli. Brain and Cognition, 4, 140-155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Homae F., Watanabe H., Nakano, T., Asakawa, K., & Taga, G. (2006). The right hemisphere of sleeping infants perceives sentential prosody. Neuroscience Research, 54, 276-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hubbs, C. L., & Hubbs, L. C. (1944). Bilateral asymmetry and bilateral variation in fishes. Paper to Michigan Academy of Arts, Sciences and Letters, 30, 229-311.Google Scholar
  66. Hyman, L. H. (1940). The invertebrates. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  67. Hynd, G. W., Marshall, R., Hall, J., & Edmonds, J. E. (1995). Learning disabilities: Neuroanatomic asymmetries. In R. J. Davidson & K. Hugdahl (Eds.), Brain asymmetry (pp. 617-635). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  68. Inglis, J., & Sykes, D. H. (1967). Some sources of variation in dichotic listening performance in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 5, 480-488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ingram, D. (1975). Cerebral speech lateralization in young children. Neuropsychologia, 13, 103-105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones, R. K. (1966). Observations on stammering after localized cerebral injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 29, 192-195.Google Scholar
  71. Kershner, J. R., & King, A. J. (1974). Laterality of cognitive functions in achieving hemiplegic children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39, 1238-1284.Google Scholar
  72. Kiessling, L. S., Denckla, M. B., & Carlton, M. (1983). Evidence for differential hemisphere function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25, 727-734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kinsbourne, M. (1970). The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries in attention. Acta Psychologica, 33, 193-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kinsbourne, M. (1972). Eye and head turning indicate cerebral lateralization. Science, 176, 539-541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kinsbourne, M. (1974). Lateral interactions in the brain. In Kinsbourne & W. L. Smith (Eds.), Hemisphere disconnection and cerebral functions (pp. 239-259). Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  76. Kinsbourne, M. (1975). The ontogeny of cerebral dominance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 263, 244-250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kinsbourne, M. (1980). A model for the ontogeny of cerebral organization in non-right-handers. In J. Herron (Ed.), Neuropsychology of left handedness (pp. 177-185). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kinsbourne, M. (1982). Hemispheric specialization and the growth of human understanding. American Psychologist, 37, 411-442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kinsbourne, M. (1986). Sinistrality and the risk for immune diseases and learning disorders: A pleiotropic gene effect? Annals of Neurology, 20, 416 (abstract).Google Scholar
  80. Kinsbourne, M. (1987). Cerebral-brainstem interactions in infantile autism. In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.), Neurobiological theories of arousal and autism. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  81. Kinsbourne, M. (1998). The right hemisphere and recovery from aphasia. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whittaker (Eds.), Handbook of neurolinguistics (pp. 385-392). New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  82. Kinsbourne, M. (2000). How a social construct caused scientific stagnation: A neuropsychological case history. Social Research, 67, 1067-1083.Google Scholar
  83. Kinsbourne, M., & Caplan, P. J. (1979). Children’s learning and attention problems. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  84. Kinsbourne, M., & Cook, J. (1971). Generalized and lateralized effects of concurrent verbalization on a unimanual skill. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 341-345.Google Scholar
  85. Kinsbourne, M., & Hicks, R. E. (1978). Functional cerebral space: A model for overflow, transfer and interference effects in human performance: A tutorial review. In J. Requin (Ed.), Attention and performance VII. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  86. Kinsbourne, M. & Hiscock, M. (1977). Does cerebral dominance develop? In S. J. Segalowitz & F. A. Gruber (Eds.), Language development and neurological theory (pp. 171-191). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  87. Kinsbourne, M., & Lempert, H. (1979). Does left brain lateralization of speech arise from right-biased orienting to salient percepts? Human Development, 22, 270-276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Klein, S. P., & Rosenfield, W. D. (1980). The hemispheric specialization for linguistic and nonlinguistic tactile stimuli in third grade children. Cortex, 16, 205-212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Knecht, S., Draeger, B., Deppe, M. (2000). Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans. Brain, 123, 2512-2518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Knox, C., & Kimura, D. (1970). Cerebral processing of nonverbal sounds in boys and girls. Neuropsychologia, 8, 227-237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kohn, B., & Dennis, M. (1974). Selective impairments of visuospatial abilities in infantile hemiplegics after right hemidecortication. Neuropsychologia, 12, 505-512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Krashen, S. D. (1973). Lateralization, language learning, and the critical period: Some new evidence. Language Learning, 23, 63-74.Google Scholar
  93. Latimer, H. B., & Lowrance, E. W. (1965). Bilateral asymmetry in weight and length of human bones. Anatomical Record, 152, 217-224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. LeMay, M. (1976). Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man, nonhuman primate. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 280, 349-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. LeMay, M. (1992). Left-right dissymmetry, handedness. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 13, 493-504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. LeMay, M., & Culebras, A. (1972). Human brain-pathological differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by cortical arteriography. New England Journal of Medicine, 287, 168-170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lempert, H., & Kinsbourne, M. (1982). Effect of laterality of orientation on verbal memory. Neuropsychologia, 20, 211-214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lempert, H., & Kinsbourne, M. (1985). Possible origin of speech in selective orienting. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 62-73.Google Scholar
  99. Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Levy, J. (1976). A review of evidence for a genetic component in the determination of handedness. Behavior Genetics, 6, 429-453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Levy, J., & Reid, M. (1976). Variations in writing posture and cerebral organization. Science, 194, 337-339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Liederman, J. (1983). Mechanisms underlying instability in the development of the hand preference. In G. Young, S. Segalowitz, C. M. Carter, & S. E. Trehub (Eds.), Manual specialization and the developing brain. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  103. Liederman, J., & Kinsbourne, M. (1980a). The mechanism of neonatal rightward turning bias: A sensory or motor asymmetry? Infant Behavior and Development, 3, 223-238.Google Scholar
  104. Liederman, J., & Kinsbourne, M. (1980b). Rightward motor bias in newborns depends upon parental right-handedness. Neuropsychologia, 18, 579-584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Loeb, J. (1918). Forced movements, tropisms and animal conduct. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  106. Lokker, R., & Morais, J. (1985). Ear differences in children at two years of age. Neuropsychologia, 23, 127-129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ludwig, W. (1932). Das Rechts-Links-Problem in Tierreich und beim Menschen. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  108. McCartney, G., & Hepper, P. (1999). Development of lateralized behavior in the human fetus from 12 to 17 weeks’ gestation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 83-86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. MacKain, K., Studdert-Kennedy, M., Spieker, S., & Stern, D. (1983). Infant intermodal speech perception is a left hemisphere function. Science, 214, 1347-1349.Google Scholar
  110. McKeever, W. F., & Van Deventer, A. D. (1975). Dyslexic adolescents: Evidence of impaired visual and auditory language processing associated with normal lateralization and visual responsivity. Cortex, 11, 361-378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. McRae, D., Branch, D., & Milner, B. (1968). The occipital horns and cerebral dominance. Neurology, 18, 95-98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Marcel, T., & Rajan, P. (1975). Lateral specialization for recognition of words and faces in good and poor readers. Neuropsychologia, 13, 489-497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Marcel, T., Katz, L., & Smith, M. (1974). Laterality and reading proficiency. Neuropsychologia, 12, 131-139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Marcus, G., & Rabagliati, H. (2006). What developmental disorders can tell us about the nature and origins of language. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1226-1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mecacci, L., Sechi, E., & Levi, G. (1983). Abnormalities of visual evoked potentials by checkerboards in children with specific reading disability. Brain and Cognition, 2, 135-143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Molfese, D. L., Freeman, R. B., & Palmero, D. S. (1975). The ontogeny of brain lateralization for speech and nonspeech stimuli. Brain and Language, 2, 356-368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Nagafuchi, M. (1970). Development of dichotic and monaural hearing abilities in young children. Acta Otolaryngologica, 69, 409-414.Google Scholar
  118. Naylor, H. (1980). Reading disability and lateral asymmetry: An information processing analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 531-545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Nottebohm. F. (1971). Neural lateralization of vocal control in a passerine bird. I. Song. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 177, 229-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Obrzut, J. E., Boliek, C. A., Bryden, M. P., & Nicholson, J. A. (1994). Age and sex-related differences in left and right hemisphere processing by learning disabled children. Neuropsychology, 8, 75-82.Google Scholar
  121. Obrzut, J. E., Hynd, G. W., Obrzut, A., & Pirozzolo, F. J. (1981). Effect of directed attention on cerebral asymmetries in normal and learning-disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 17, 118-125.Google Scholar
  122. Obrzut, J. E., Hynd, G. W., & Zellner, R. D. (1983). Attentional deficit in learning disabled children: Evidence from visual half-field asymmetries. Brain and Cognition, 2, 89-101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ojemann, G. A. (1977). Asymmetric function of the thalamus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 299, 380-396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  125. Palmer, R. D. (1964). Development of a differentiated handedness. Psychological Bulletin, 62, 257-272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Pande, B. S., & Singh, I. (1971). One-sided dominance in the upper limbs of human fetuses as evidenced by asymmetry in muscle and bone weight. Journal of Anatomy, 109, 457-459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Parlow, S. E., & Kinsbourne, M. (1981). Handwriting posture and manual motor asymmetries in sinistrals. Neuropsychologia, 19, 687-696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Parlow, S. E., Kinsbourne, M., & Spencer, J.A. (1996). Cerebral laterality in adults with severe mental retardation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 299-312.Google Scholar
  129. Pena, M., Maki, A., Kovacic, D., Dahaene-Lambertz, C., Koizumi, H., Bouquet, F., et al. (2003). Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 1000, 11702-11705.Google Scholar
  130. Penfield, W., & Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Piazza, D. M. (1977). Cerebral lateralization in young children as measured by dichotic listening and finger tapping tasks. Neuropsychologia, 15, 417-425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Pinsky, S. D., & McAdam, D. W. (1980). Electroencephalographic and dichotic indices of cerebral laterality in stutterers. Brain and Language, 11, 374-397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Pipe, M. E. (1983). Dichotic listening performance following auditory discrimination training in Down’s syndrome and developmentally retarded children. Cortex, 19, 481-491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Porter, R. J., Jr., & Berlin, C. I. (1975). On interpreting developmental changes in the dichotic right-ear advantage. Brain and Language, 2, 186-200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Provine, R. R., & Westerman, J. A. (1979). Crossing the midline: Limits of early eye-hand behavior. Child Development, 50, 437-441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ramsey, D. S. (1980). Beginnings of bimanual handedness and speech in infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 3, 67-77.Google Scholar
  137. Ramsey, D. S. (1984). Onset of unimanual handedness in infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 3, 377-385.Google Scholar
  138. Rankin, J. M., Aram, D. M., & Horwitz, S. J. (1981). Language ability in right and left hemiplegic children. Brain and Language, 14, 292-306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Reinvang, I., Bakke, S. J., Hugdahl, K., Karesen, N. R., & Sundet, K. (1994). Dichotic listening performance in relation to callosal area on the MRI scan. Neuropsychology, 8, 445-450.Google Scholar
  140. Ringo, J. L., Doty, R. W., Demeter, S., & Simard, P. Y. (1994). Time is of the essence: A conjecture that hemispheric specialization arises from intrahemispheric conduction delay. Cerebral Cortex, 4, 331-343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Ronnqvist, L., & Hopkins, B. (1998). Head position preference in the human newborn: A new look. Child Development, 69, 13-23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rose, S. (1984). Developmental changes in hemispheric specialization for tactual processing in very young children: Evidence from cross-modal transfer. Developmental Psychology, 20, 568-574.Google Scholar
  143. Rutter, M., Bartak, L., & Newman, S. (1971). Autism: A central disorder of cognition and language? In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment. London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  144. Satz, P. (1972). Pathological lefthandedness: An explanatory model. Cortex, 8, 121-135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Satz, P. (1976). Cerebral dominance and reading disability: An old problem revisited. In R. M. Knights & D. J. Bakker (Eds.), The neuropsychology of learning disorders. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  146. Satz, P., Orsini, D. L., Saslow, E., & Henry, R. (1985). The pathological left-handedness syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 4, 27-46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Satz, P., Strauss, E., & Whitaker, H. (1990). The ontogeny of hemispheric specialization: Some old hypotheses revisited. Brain and Language, 38, 596-614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Saxby, L., & Bryden, M. P. (1984). Left-ear superiority in children for processing of auditory emotional material. Developmental Psychology, 20, 72-80.Google Scholar
  149. Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., & Maer, F. (1975). Right hemisphere lateralization for emotion in the human brain: Interactions with cognition. Science, 190, 286-288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Searleman, A., Porac, C., & Coren, S. (1982). The relationship between birth stress and writing hand posture. Brain and Cognition, 1, 158-164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Segalowitz, S. J., & Berge, B. E. (1995). Functional asymmetries in infancy and early childhood: A review of electro-physiologic studies and their implication. In R. J. Davidson & K. Hugdahl (Eds.), Brain asymmetry (pp. 579-616). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  152. Segalowitz, S. J., & Chapman, J. S. (1980). Cerebral asymmetry for speech in neonate: A behavioral measure. Brain and Language, 9, 281-288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Seth, G. (1973). Eye-hand coordination and “handedness”: A development study of visuomotor behaviour in infants. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 43, 35-49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Shankweiler, D. P., & Studdert-Kennedy, M. A. (1967). A continuum of lateralization for speech perception? Brain and Language, 2, 212-225.Google Scholar
  155. Shucard, J. L., Shucard, D. W., Cummins, K. R., & Campos, J. J. (1981). Auditory evoked potentials and sex-related differences in brain development. Brain and Language, 13, 91-102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sidtis, J. J., Sadler, A. E., & Nass, R. D. (1987). Dichotic complex pitch and speech discrimination in 7 to 12 year old children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 227-238.Google Scholar
  157. Siebner, H. R., Limmer, C., Peinemann, A., Drzezga, A., Bloem, B. R., Schwaiger, M., et al. (2002), Long-term consequences of switching handedness: A positron emission tomography study on handwriting in “converted” left-handers. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 2816-2825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Silva, D., & Satz, P. (1984). Pathological left-handedness and ambiguous handedness: A new explanatory model. Neuropsychologia, 22, 511-515.Google Scholar
  159. Soper, H. V., Satz, P., Orsini, D. L., Van Gorp, W. G., & Gireer, M. F. (1987). Handedness distribution within severe to profound mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 92, 94-102.Google Scholar
  160. Spreen, O., Risser, A. H., & Edgell, D. (1995). Developmental neuropsychology. New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Stiles-Davis, J., Sugarman, S., & Nass, R. (1985). The development of spatial and class relations in four young children with right hemisphere damage: Evidence for an early spatial constructive deficit. Brain and Cognition, 4, 388-412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Tannock, R., Kershner, J. R., & Oliver, J. (1984). Do individuals with Down’s syndrome possess right hemisphere language dominance? Cortex, 20, 221-223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Teng, E. L., Lee, P., Yang, K., & Chang, P. C. (1976). Genetic, cultural and neuropathological factors in relation to laterality. In D. O. Walton, L. Rogers, & J. H. Finzi-Fried (Eds.), Conference on human brain function: Brain information service. Los Angeles: BRC Publication, University of California.Google Scholar
  164. Teuber, H.-L., & Rudel, R. G. (1962). Behavior after cerebral lesions in children and adults. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 4, 3-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Travis. L. E. (1927). Studies in stuttering. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 18, 671-690, 998-1014.Google Scholar
  166. Treisman A. M., & Geffen, G. (1968). Selective attention and cerebral dominance in perceiving and responding to speech messages. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 139-150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Tsai, L. Y. (1982). Handedness in autistic children and their families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 421-423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Turkewitz, G. (1977). The development of lateral differentiation in the human infant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 299, 309-317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Turkewitz, G., & Ross-Kossak, P. (1984). Multiple modes of right hemisphere information processing: Age and sex differences in facial recognition. Developmental Psychology, 20, 95-103.Google Scholar
  170. Vargha-Khadem, F., & Corballis, M. C. (1979). Cerebral asymmetry in infants. Brain and Language, 8, 1-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Vargha-Khadem, F., O’Gorman, A. M., & Watters, G. V. (1985). Aphasia and handedness in relation to hemispheric side, age at injury and severity of cerebral lesion during childhood. Brain, 8(3), 677-696.Google Scholar
  172. Wada, J. A., Clark, R., & Hamm, A. (1975). Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans. Archives of Neurology, 32, 239-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. White, N., & Kinsbourne, M. (1980). Does speech output control lateralization over time? Evidence from verbal-manual time sharing tasks. Brain and Language, 10, 215-233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wiedeman, G., Pauli, P., Dengler, W., Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N., Buchkremer, G. (1999). Frontal brain asymmetry as a biological substrate of emotions in patients with panic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 78-84.Google Scholar
  175. Witelson, S. F. (1974). Hemispheric specialization for linguistic and nonlinguistic tactual perception using a dichotomous stimulation technique. Cortex, 10, 3-17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Witelson, S. F. (1976). Sex and the single hemisphere: Right hemisphere specialization for spatial processing. Science, 193, 425-427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Witelson, S. F., & Kigar, D. L. (1988). Asymmetry in brain function follows asymmetry in anatomical form: Gross, microscopic, postmortem and imaging studies. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. I, pp. 114-142). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  178. Witelson, S. F., & Pallie, W. (1973). Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn. Brain, 96, 641-646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Wood, F., Stump, D., McKeehan, A., Sheldon, S., & Proctor, J. (1980). Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow during attempted reading aloud by stutterers both on and off haloperidol medication: Evidence for inadequate left frontal activation during stuttering. Brain and Language, 9, 141-144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Wood, A. G., Harvey, A. S., Welloved, R. M., Abbott, D. F., Anderson, V., Kean, M., et al. (2004). Language cortex activation in normal children. Neurology, 63, 1035-1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Woods, B. T., & Teuber, H. L. (1978). Changing patterns of childhood aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 32, 239-246.Google Scholar
  182. Yazgan, M. Y., Wexler, B. E., Kinsbourne, M., Peterson, B., & Leckman, J. F. (1995). Functional significance of individual variations in callosal area. Neuropsychologia, 33, 769-779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Yeni-Komshian, G. H., & Benson, D. A. (1976). Anatomical study of cerebral asymmetry in the temporal lobe of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Science, 192, 387-389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Yorita, G. J., Melnick, M., Opitz, J. M., & Reynolds, J. F. (2005). Cleft lip and handedness: A study of laterality. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 31, 273-280.Google Scholar
  185. Young, A. W., & Bion, P. J. (1980). Absence of any developmental trend in right hemisphere superiority for face recognition. Cortex, 16, 113-221.Google Scholar
  186. Young, A. W., & Ellis, H. D. (1976). An experimental investigation of developmental differences in ability to recognize faces presented to the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Neuropsychologia, 14, 495-498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Young, G., & Gagnon, M. (1990). Neonatal laterality, birth stress, familial sinistrality, and left-brain inhibition. Developmental Neuropsychology, 6, 127-150.Google Scholar
  188. Zurif, E. B., & Carson, G. (1970). Dyslexia in relation to cerebral dominance and temporal analysis. Neuropsychologia, 8, 351-361.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New School for Social ResearchNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations