Advertisement

Neurobehavioral and Neurodevelopmental Sequelae Associated with Pediatric HIV Infection

  • Antolin M. Llorente
  • Christine LoPresti
  • Paul Satz

Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral manifestations in infancy and childhood, resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection, continue to warrant special and distinct consideration in this handbook.

Keywords

Expressive Language Skill Prenatal Drug Exposure Neurobehavioral Sequela Mental Processing Composite Neurodevelopmental Profile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. (1991). Nomenclature and research case definition for neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection. Annals of Neurology, 41, 778-785.Google Scholar
  2. Andiman, W. A., & Modlin, J. F. (1991). Vertical Transmission. In P. A. Pizzo & K. M. Wilfert, (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infant, children, and adolescents (pp. 140-155). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  3. Angelini L., Zibordi, F., Triulzi, F., Cinque, P., Giudici, B., Pinzani, R., et al. (2000). Age dependant neurologic manifestations of HIV infection in children. Neurological Science, 21, 135-142.Google Scholar
  4. Auger, I., Thomas, P., De Gruttola, V., Morse, D., Moore, D., Williams, R., et al. (1988). Incubation periods for pediatric AIDS patients. Nature, 336, 575-577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aylward, E. H., Butz, A. M., Hutton, M. L., & Vogulhut, J. W. (1992). Cognitive and motor development in infants at risk for human immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 146, 218-222.Google Scholar
  6. Bayley, N. (1969). Manual for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. San Antonio, TX: the Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  7. Belman, A. L. (1990). AIDS and pediatric neurology. Neurology Clinics, 8, 571-603.Google Scholar
  8. Belman, A. L. (2002). HIV infection and AIDS. Neurology Clinics, 20, 983.Google Scholar
  9. Belman, A. L., Diamond, G., Dickson, D., Horoupian, D., Liena, J., Lantos, G., et al. (1988). Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 142, 29-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Belman, A., Diamond, G., Park, Y., Nozyce, M., Douglas, C., Cabot, T., Bernstein, L., et al. (1989). Perinatal HIV infection: A prospective longitudinal study of the initial CNS signs. Neurology, 39(Suppl. 1), 278-279. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  11. Belman, A. L., Lantos, G., Horoupian, D., Novick, B. E., Ultmann, M. H., Dickson, D. W., et al. (1986). AIDS: Calcification of the basal ganglia in infants and children. Neurology, 36, 1192-1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Belman, A. L., Novick, B., Ultmann, M. H., Spiro, A. J., Rubinstein, A., Horoupian, D. S., et al. (1984). Neurologic complications in children with AIDS. Annals of Neurology, 16, 414. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  13. Belman, A. L., Ultmann, M. H., Horoupian, D., Novick, B., Spiro, A. J., Rubinstein, A., et al. (1985). Neurological complications in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 18, 560-566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blanche, S., Tardieu, M., Rustin, P., Slama, A., Barret, B., Firtion, G., Ciraru-Vigneron, N., Lacroix, C., Rouzioux, C., Mandelbrot, L., Desquerre, I., Rötig, A., Mayaux, M. J., & Delfraissy, J. F. (1999). Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction and perinatal exposure to antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. Lancet, 354, 1084-1089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blanchette, N., Smith, M. L., Fernandez-Penny, A., King, S., & Read, S. Cognitive and motor development in children with vertically transmitted HIV infection. Brain and Cognition, 46, 50-53.Google Scholar
  16. Boivin, M. J., Green, S. D. R., Davies, A. G., Giordani, B., Mokili, J. K. L., & Cutting, W. A. M. (1995). Health Psychology, 14, 13-21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Booth, R. E. et al. (2004). Predictors of self-reported HIV Infection among drug users in Ukraine. Journal of Aids, 35, 82-88.Google Scholar
  18. Bradley, W. G., Daroff, R. B., & Fenichel, G. M. (2004). Neurologic manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in children. Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2, 1603-1611.Google Scholar
  19. Brady, M. T., McGrath, N., Brouwers, P., Gelber, R., Fowler, M. G., Yogev, R., Hutton, N., Bryson, Y. J., Mitchell, C. D., & Fikrig, S. (1996). Randomized study of the tolerance and efficacy of high- versus low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with mild to moderate symptoms (AIDS Clinical Trials Group 128). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 173, 1097-1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brinkman, K., Ter-Hofstede, H. J. M., Burger, D. M. Smeitink, J. A. M., & Koopmans, P. P. (1998). Adverse effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors: mitochondria toxicity as common pathway, AIDS, 12, 1735-1744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brouwers, P., Belman, A. L., & Epstein, L. G. (1991). Central nervous system involvement: Manifestations and evaluation. In P. A. Pizzo & K. M. Wilfert (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (pp. 318-335). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  22. Brouwers, P., Belman, A. L., & Epstein, L. (1994). Central Nervous System involvement: Manifestations, evaluation, and pathogenesis. In P. A. Pizzo & K. M. Wilfert, (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 433-455). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  23. Brouwers, P., Belman, A. L., & Epstein, L. (1999). Central Nervous System involvement: Manifestations, evaluation, and pathogenesis. In P. A. Pizzo & K. M. Wilfert (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 293-308). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  24. Brouwers, P., DeCarli, C., Civitello, L., Moss, H., Wolters, P., & Pizzo, P. (1995). Correlation between computed tomographic brain scan abnormalities and neuropsychological function in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus disease. Archives of Neurology, 52, 39-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brouwers, P., Heyes, M., Moss, H., Wolters, P., Poplack, D., Markey, S., et al. (1993). Quinolinic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with symptomatic HIV-1 disease: relationships to clinical status and therapeutic response. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 168, 1380-1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brouwers, P., Moss, H., Wolters, P. (1990). Effect of continuous-infusion zidovudine therapy on neuropsychologic functioning of children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics, 117, 980-985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brouwers, P., Moss, H., Wolters, P., el-Amin, D., Tassone, E., & Pizzo, P. (1992). Neurobehavioral typology of school-age children with symptomatic HIV disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 113. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  28. Brouwers, P., Moss, H., Wolters, P., & Schmitt, F. A. (1994). Developmental deficits and behavioral change in pediatric AIDS. In I. Grant & A. Martin (Eds.), Neuropsychology of HIV infection (pp. 310-338). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Bryson, Y., Dillon, M., Garratty, E., Dickover, M., Keller, A., & Deveikis, A. (1993). The role of timing of HIV maternal-fetal transmission (in-utero vs. intrapartum) and HIV phenotype on onset of symptoms in vertically infected infants (Abstract WS-C10-2). Proceedings from the IXth International Conference on AIDS/IV STD, World Congress (Berlin). London: Wellcome Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Burgard, M., Mayaux, J., & Blanche, S. (1992). The use of viral culture and p24 antigen testing to diagnose human immunodeficiency virus in neonates. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1192-1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buseyne, F., Janvier, G., Teglas, J. P., Ivanoff, S., Burgard, M., Bui, E., Mayaux, M.-J., Blanche, S., Rouzioux, C., Riviere, Y. (1998). Impact of heterozygosity for the chemokine receptor CCR5 32-bp-deleted allele on plasma virus load and CD4 T lymphocytes in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected children at 8 years of age. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178, 1019-1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Balis, F. M., Brouwers, P., Eddy, J., el-Amin, D., et al. (1991). Dideoxyinosine (ddI) in symptomatic HIV-infected children: A phase I-II study. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 137-144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carneiro, M., Sanchez, A., Maneiro, P., Angelosante, W., Perez., C., Valleé, M. (2001). Vertical HIV-1 transmission: Prophylaxis and paediatric follow-up. Placenta, 22, S8-13.Google Scholar
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1993). HIV/AIDS, Surveillance Report, 5, 1-19.Google Scholar
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children less than 13 years of age. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, 43, 1-10.Google Scholar
  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.Google Scholar
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Google Scholar
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Google Scholar
  39. Chantry, C. J., Byrd, R. S., Englund, J. A. Baker, C. J., McKinney, R. E., Jr. (2003). Growth, survival and viral load in symptomatic childhood human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 152 Study Team. 22, 1033-1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chase, C., Ware, J., Hittleman, J., Blasini, I., Smith, R., Llorente, A., et al. (2000). Early cognitive and motor development among infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatrics, 106, e25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen, S., Mundy, T., Karrassik, B., Lieb, L., Ludwig, D., & Ward, J. (1991). Neuropsychological functioning in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositive children infected through neonatal blood transfusion. Pediatrics, 88, 58-68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Connor, R, I., & Ho, D. D. (1994). Biology and molecular biology of HIV. In P. A. Pizzo, & K. M. Wilfert, (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 97-113). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  43. Connor, E. M., Sperling, R. S., & Gelber, R. (1994). Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 1173-1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Conners, C. K. (1989). Conners’ Rating Sacales Manual: Conners’ Teacher Rating Scales and Conners’ Parent Rating Scales. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  45. Cooper, E. R., Charurat, M., Mofenson, L., Hanson, I.C., Pitt, J., Diaz, C., Hayani, K., Handelsman, E., Smirglio, V., Hoff, R., Blattner, W. and the WITS Study Group. (2002). Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 29, 484-94.Google Scholar
  46. Cooper, E. R., Hanson, C., Diaz, C., Mendez, H., Abboud, R., Nugent, R., Rich, J. P. K., Rodriguez, E. M., & Smirglio, V. (1998). Encephalopathy and progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in a cohort of children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Pediatrics,132, 808-812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Coplan, J., Contello, K. A., Cunningham, C. K., Weiner, L. B., Dye, T. D., Roberge, L., Wojtowyez, M. A., & Kirkwood, K. (1998). Early language development in children exposed to or infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatrics, 110, e8.Google Scholar
  48. Culnane, M., Fowler, M. G., & Lee, S. S. (1999). Lack of long-term effects of in-utero exposure to zidovudine among uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 151-157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Davis, L. E., Hjelle, B. L., Miller, V. E. et al. (1992). Early viral brain invasion in iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Neurology, 42, 1736-1739.Google Scholar
  50. DeCarli, C., Civitello, L. A., Brouwers, P., & Pizzo, P. A. (1993). The prevalence of computed Axial Tomographic abnormalities of the cerebrum in 100 consecutive children symptomatic with the HIV. Annals of Neurology, 34, 198-205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. DeCarli, C., Fugate, L., Falloon, J., Eddy, J., Katz, D. A., Friedland, R. P., et al. (1991). Brain growth and cognitive improvement in children with human immune deficiency virus-induced encephalopathy after six months of continuous infusion azidothymidine therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 4, 585-592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. de Martino, M. (1994). Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection and breast milk. Acta Paediatrica Supplement, 400, 51-58.Google Scholar
  53. DePaula, M., Queiroz, W., Llan, Y., Rodreguez Taveras, C., Janini, M., & Soraggi, N. (1991). Pediatric AIDS: Differentials in survival. Proceedings of the VII International Conference on AIDS, 2, 190. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  54. Diamond, G. W. (1989). Developmental problems in children with HIV infection. Mental Retardation, 27, 213-217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Diamond, G. W., Kaufman, J., Belman, A. L., Cohen, L., Cohen, H. J., & Rubinstein, A. (1987). Characterization of cognitive functioning in a subgroup of children with congenital HIV infection. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 245-256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dickson, D. W., Belman, A. L., Park, Y. D., Wiley, C., Horoupian, D. S., Llena, J., et al. (1989). Central nervous system pathology In pediatric AIDS: An autopsy study. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica, 8(Suppl), 40-57.Google Scholar
  57. Dragic, T., Litwin, V., Allaway, G. P., Martin, S. R., Huang, Y., Nagashima, K. A., Cayanan, C., MAddon, P. J., Koup, R. A., Moore, J. P., & Paxton, W. A. (1996). HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR5. Nature, 381, 667-673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Drotar, D., Olness, K., Witznitzer, M., Guay, L., MArum, L., Suilar, G., Hom, D., Fagan. J. F., Ndugwa, C., Kiziri-MAyengo, R. (1997). Neurodevelopmental outocomes of Ugandan infants with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatrics, 100, e5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Englund, J. A., Baker, C. J., Raskino, C. et al. (1996). Clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large cohort of symptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants and children. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 152 Study Team. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal, 15, 1025-1036.Google Scholar
  60. Epstein, L. G., Sharer, L. R., & Goudsmit, J. (1988). Neurological and neuropathological features of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Annals of Neurology, 23(Suppl), S19-S23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Epstein, L. G., Goudsmit, J., Paul, D. S., Morrison, S. H., Connor, E. M., Oleske, J. M et al. (1987). Expression of human immunodeficiency virus in cerebrospinal fluid of children with progressive encephalopathy. Annals of Neurology, 21, 397-401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Epstein, L. G., Sharer, L. R., Joshi, V. V., Fogas, M. M., Koenigsberger, M. R., & Oleske, J. M. (1985). Progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 17, 488-496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Epstein, L. G., Sharer, L. R., Oleske, J. M., Connor, E. M., Goudsmit, J., Bagdon, L., et al. (1986). Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatrics, 78, 678-687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. European Collaborative Study Group. (1991). Children born to women with HIV-1 infection. Natural history and risk of transmission. Lancet, 337, 253-260.Google Scholar
  65. Ewing-Cobbs, L., Fletcher, J. M., Levin, H. S., & Landry, S. H. (1985). Language disorders after pediatric head injury. In J. Darby (Ed.), Speech and language evaluation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Falloon, J., Eddy., J., Wiener, L., & Pizzo, P. A. (1989). Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 1-30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Feigin, R. D., & Cherry, J. D. (1992). Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  68. Filley, C. M. (1994). Neurobehavioral aspects of cerebral white matter disorders. In B. S. Fogel, R. S. Schiffer, & S. M. Rao (Eds.), Neuropsychiatry: A comprehensive textbook. Baltimore, M.D.: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  69. Fowler, M. G. (1994). Pediatric HIV infection: Neurologic and neuropsychological findings. Acta Paediatrica Supplement, 400, 59-62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Frank, K. Y., Lim, W., & Kahn, E. (1989). Multiple ischemic infarcts in children with AIDS, varicella zoster infection and cerebral vasculatis. Pediatric Neurology, 5, 64-67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Friedland, G., & Klein, R. (1987). Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. New England Journal of Medicine, 317, 1125-1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Guarino, A., Spagnuolo, M. I., Giacomet, V., Canani, R., Bruzzese, E., Gianquintgo, C., Roggero, P., Plebani, A., & Gattinara, G. C. (2002). Effects of nutritional rehabilitation on intestinal function and on CD4 cell number in children with HIV. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 34, 366-371.Google Scholar
  73. Hanson, I. C. & Shearer, W. T. (1994). Diagnosis of HIV infection. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 5, 266-271.Google Scholar
  74. Hanson, C. G., & Shearer, W. T. (1992). Pediatric HIV infection and AIDS. In R. D. Feigin, & J. D. Cherry (Eds.), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (pp. 990-1011). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  75. Havens, J., Whitaker, A., Feldman, J., Alvarado, L., & Ehrhardt, A. (1993). A controlled study of cognitive and language function in school-age HIV-infected children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 693, 249-251Google Scholar
  76. Hittleman, J., Willoughby, A., Mendez, H., Nelson, N., Gong, J., Holman, S., et al. (1990). Neurodevelopmental outcome of perinatally-acquired HIV infection on the first 15 months of life. Proceedings from the VI International Conference on AIDS, 3, 130. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  77. Hittleman, J., Willoughby, A., Mendez, H., Nelson, N., Gong, J., Mendez, H., et al. (1991). Neurodevelopmental outcome of perinatally- acquired HIV infection on the first 24 months of life. Proceedings from the VI International Conference on AIDS, 1, 65. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  78. Ho, D. D., Rota, T. R., Schooley, R. T., Kaplan, J. C., Allan, J. D., Groopman, J. E., et al. (1985). Isolation of HTLV-III from cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissues of patients with neurologic syndromes related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 313, 1493-1497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ioannidis, J. P. A., Contopoulus-Ioannidis, D. G., Rosenberg, P. S., Goedert, J. J., De Rossi, A., Espanol, T. et al. (2003). Effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on disease progression of perinatally HIV-1-infected children: An international meta analysis. AIDS, 17, 1631-1638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kaufman, A. S. (1975). Factor analysis of the WISC-R at 11 age levels between 6 1/2 and 16 1/2 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 135-147.Google Scholar
  81. Keller, M.A., Venkatraman, T.N., Deveikis, A., LoPresti, C., Hayes, J., Keller, R.A., et al. (2004). Altered age-associated brain metabolite development in HIV-infected children. Neurology, 62, 1810-1817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Keller, M.A., Venkatraman, T.N., Thomas, M.A., Deveikis, A., LoPresti, C., Hayes, J., Berman, N., Walot, I., Ernst, T., & Chang, L. (2006). Cerebral metabolites in HIV-infected children followed for 10 months with H-MRS. Neurology, 66, 874-879.Google Scholar
  83. Kløve, H. (1963). Clinical neuropsychology. In F. M. Foster (Ed.), The Medical Clinics of North America. New York: W.B. Saunders & Company.Google Scholar
  84. Kostrikis, L. G., Neumann, A. U., Thomson, B., Korber, B. T., McHardy, P., Karanicolas, R. et al. (1999). A polymorphism in the regulatory region of the CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 gene influences perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 to African-American infants. Journal of Virology, 73, 10264-10271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Koenig, S., Gendelman, H. E., Orenstein, J., Dal Canto, M. C., Pezeshkpour, G. H., Yungbluth, M., et al. (1986). Detection of AIDS virus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients with encephalopathy. Science, 233, 1089-1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Koup, R. A., & Wilson, C. B. (1994). Clinical immunology of HIV infected children. In P. A. Pizzo, & K. M. Wilfert (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (pp. 129-157). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  87. Krivine, A., Firtion, G., Cao, L., Francoual, C., Henrion, R., & Lebon, P. (1992). HIV replication during the first weeks of life. Lancet, 339, 1187-1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lange, J., Stellato, R., Brinkman, K. (1999). Review of neurological adverse events in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: PETRA study. In 2nd Conference on Global Strategies for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mothers to Infants. Montreal, Canada (Abstract 250).Google Scholar
  89. Levenson, R. L., Jr., Mellins, C. A., Zawadzki, R., Kairam, R., & Stein, Z. (1992). Cognitive assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-exposed children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 1479-1883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lezak, M. D., Howison, D., Loring, D. (2005). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lezak, M. D. (1978). Subtle sequelae of brain damage: Perplexity, distractibility, and fatigue. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 57, 9-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lindegren, M. L., Byers, R. H., Jr., Thomas, P. Davis, S. F., Caldwell, B., Rogers, M., Gwinn M., Ward, J. W., & Fleming, P. L. (1999). Trends in Perinatal Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 531-538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Llorente, A. M., LoPresti, C., & Satz, P. (1997). Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral sequelae associated with pediatric HIV infection. In C. R. Reynolds, & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 634-650). New York: Plenum Publishing.Google Scholar
  94. Llorente, A. M., Turcich, M., Lawrence, K. A. (2004). Differences in neuropsychological performance associated with ethnicity in children with HIV-1 infection: Preliminary findings. Applied Neuropsychology, 11, 47-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Llorente, A. M., Brouwers, P., Charurat, M., Magder, L., Malee, K., Mellins, C., et al. (2003). Early neurodevelopmental markers predictive of mortality in infants infected with HIV-1. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 45, 76-84.Google Scholar
  96. Llorente, A. M., Brouwers, P., Thompson, B., Macmillan, C., LaRussa, P., Mofenson, L., et al. (2006). Effects of polymorphisms of chemokine receptors on neurodevelopment and the onset of encephalopathy in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. Applied Neuropsychology, 13, 180-189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Llorente, A. M., van Gorp, W. G., Stern, M. J., George, L., Satz, P., Marcotte, T. D., et al. (2001). Long-term outcome of high-dose zidovudine treatment on neuropsychological performance in mildly symptomatic HIV patients: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 27-32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Llorente, A. M., LoPresti, C. M., Guzzard. C., Satz, P., & Evans, G. (2000). HIV-1 infection spectrum disease: Neuropsychological manifestations and cross-cultural considerations in adulthood, adolescence, and childhood. In E. Fletcher-Janzen, T. Strickland, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology (pp. 215-246). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  99. Llorente, A. M., LoPresti, C. E., Levy, J. K., & Fernandez, F. (2001). Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral correlates associated with HIV infection: Assessment considerations with Hispanic populations. In M. Ponton, & J. Leon-Carrion (Eds.), Neuropsychology and the Hispanic Patient (pp. 209-242). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.Google Scholar
  100. Llorente, A. M., Miller, E. N., D'Elia, L. F., Selnes, O. A., Wesch, J., Becker, J. T., & Satz, P. (1998). Slowed information processing in HIV-1 disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 60-72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. LoPresti, C.M., Llorente, A., Guzzard, C., & Brumm, V. (1998, August). Neuropsychological functioning in HIV+ women: Consultation with community-based organizations. Presented at the National Meeting of the American Psychological Association. San Francisco, California.Google Scholar
  102. Loubery-Unique, C., Gauthier, A., Vauzelle-Gardier, C. & Tibayrenc, M. (2001). Antiretroviral agents and pregnancy: Mitochondrial dysfunction and nucleoside analogs. Therapie, 56, 261-266.Google Scholar
  103. Lyman, W. D., Kress, Y., Kure, K., Rushbaum, W. K., Rubinstein, A., Seiro, R. (1990). Detection of HIV in fetal central nervous system tissue. AIDS, 4, 917-920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Macdonald, W. B. (1984). Viral and Chlamydal Infections. In M. Ziai (Ed.), Pediatrics (pp. 505-542). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  105. Martin, S. C., Wolters, P. L., Toledo-Tamula, M. A., Zeichner, S. L., Hazra, R., & Civitello, L. (2006). Cognitive functioning in school-aged children with vertically acquired HIV infection being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Developmental Neuropsychology, 30, 633-657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Masliah, E., Achim, C. L., Ge, N., DeTerresa, R., Terry, R. D., & Wiley, C. A. (1992). Spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus associated neocortical damage. Annals of Neurology, 32, 321-329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. McArthur, J. C. (1994). Neurological and neuropathological manifestations of HIV infection. In I. Grant, & A. Martin (Eds.), Neuropsychology of HIV infection (pp. 56-107). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. McCarthy, D., (1972). McCarthy scales of children’s abilities. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  109. McGrath, N., Fawzie, W. W., Bellinger, D. Robins, J., Msamanga, G. I., Manji, K., & Tronick, E. (2006). The timing of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the neurodevelopment of children in Tanzania. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 25, 47-520.Google Scholar
  110. McKinney, R. E., Maha, M. A., Connor, E. M., Feinberg, J., Scott, G. B., Wolfsohn, M., McIntosh, K., Borkowsky, W., Modlin, J. F., Weintraub, P. et al. (1991). A multicenter trial of oral zidovudine in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 1018-1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Mellins, C. A., Brackis-Cott, E., Dolezal, C., & Abrams, E. J. (2004). The role of psychosocial and family factors in adherence to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 23, 1035-1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mellins, C., Smith, R., O’Driscoll, P., Magder, L., Brouwers, P., Chase, C., Blasini, I., et al. (2003). High rates of behavioral problems in perinatally HIV-infected children are not linked to HIV disease. Pediatrics, 111, 384-393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mills, E. L., Regelmann, W. E., & Quie, P. G. (1981). Immunology of the newborn. In R. D. Feigin, & J. D. Cherry (Eds.), Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases (pp. 729-746). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  114. Mintz, M. (1989). Elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor associated with progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 143, 771-774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Misrahi, M., Teglas, J-P., N’Go, N., Burgard, M., Mayaux, M-J., Rouzioux, C., et al. (1998). CCR5 chemokinereceptor variant in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and disease progression in children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 277-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nicholas, S. W. (1994). The opportunistic and bacterial infections associated with pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus disease. Acta Paediatrica Supplement, 400, 46-50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Overall, J. C. (1981). Viral infections of the fetus and neonate. In R. D. Feigin, & J. D. Cherry (Eds.), Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases (pp. 684-721). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  118. Oxtoby, M. J. (1990). Epidemiology of pediatric AIDS in the United States. In P. Kozlowski, D. Wnider, P. Vietze, & H. Wisniewski, (Eds.), Brain in pediatric AIDS (pp. 1-8). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  119. Oxtoby, M. J. (1994). Vertically acquired HIV infection in the United States. In P. A. Pizzo, & C. M. Wilfert, (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 3-20). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  120. Pang, S., Koyanagi, Y., Miles, S., Wiley, C., Vinters, H., & Chen, I. (1990). High levels of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA in brain tissue of AIDS dementia patients. Nature, 343, 85-89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Park, Y., Belman, A., Dickson, D., Llena, J., Josephina, F., Lantos, G., et al. (1988). Stroke in pediatric AIDS. Annals of Neurology, 24, 279. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  122. Park, Y.D., Belman, A. L., Kim, T.S., Kure, K., Llena, J. F., Lantos, G., Bernstein, L., & Dickson, D.W. (1990). Stroke in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 28, 303-311.Google Scholar
  123. Pizzo, P. A., & Wilfert, C. M. (Eds.). (1994). Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  124. Pizzo, P. A., & Wilfert, C. M. (Eds.). (1998). Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  125. Pizzo, P., Brouwers, P., & Poplack, D. (1989). Intravenous infusion of zidovudine (AZT) in children with HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 805-806.Google Scholar
  126. Pizzo, P., Butler, K., Balis, F., Brouwers, E., Hawkins, M., Eddy, J., et al. (1990). Dideoxycytidine alone and in an alternating schedule with zidovudine in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 117, 799-808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pizzo, P., Eddy, J., Falloon, J., Balis, F., Murphy, R., Moss, H., et al. (1988). Effect of continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine (AZT) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 889-896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Prober, C., & Gershon, A. (1991). Medical management of newborns and infants born to seropositive mothers. In P. A. Pizzo, & C. M. Wilfert (Eds.), Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents (pp. 516-530. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  129. Raphael, S. A., Price, M. L., Lischner, H. W., Griffin, J. W., Grover, W. D., & Bagasra, O. (1991). Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child with symptomatic human immunodeficiency infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 118, 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Resnick, L., Berger, J. R., Shapshak, P., & Tourtellote, W. W. (1988). Early penetration of blood-brain barrier by HIV. Neurology, 38, 9-14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rogers, M. F. (1989). Modes, rates, and risk factors for perinatal transmission of HIV. Proceedings of the V International Conference on AIDS, 1, 199. (Abstract #T.B.O.19).Google Scholar
  132. Rogers, M. F., Thomas, P. A., Starcher, E. T., Noa, M. C., Bush, T. J., & Jaffe, J. W. (1987). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children: Report of the Center for Disease Control National Surveillance, 1982 to 1985. Pediatrics, 79, 1008-1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Routh, D. K. (Ed.)(1988). Handbook of pediatric psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  134. Safriel, Y. I., Haller, J.O., Lefton, D. R., & Obedian, R. (2000). Imaging of the brain in the HIV positive child. Pediatric Radiology, 30, 725-732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sarngadharan, M. G., Popovic, M., Bruch, L., Shupbach, J., & Gallo, R. C. (1984). Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS. Science, 224, 506-508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Satz, P. (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: A formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology, 7, 273-295.Google Scholar
  137. Schmitt, F. A., Bigley, J. W., McKinnis, R., Logue, P. E., Evans, R. W., & Drucker, J. L. (1988). Neuropsychological outcome of zidovudine (AZT) treatment of patients with AIDS and ARC-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1573-1578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Selnes, O. A., & Miller, E. N. (1994). Development of a screening battery for HIV-related cognitive impairment: The MACS experience. In I. Grant, & A. Martin (Eds.). Neuropsychology of HIV infection (pp.176-187). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Shankar, S. K., Mahadevan, A., Satishchandra, P., Kumar, R. U., & Yasha, T. C. (2005). Neuropathology of HIV/AIDS with an overview of the Indian scene. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 121, 468-488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sharer, L., Cho, E. S., & Epstein, L. G. (1985). Multinucleated giant cells and HTLV-III in AIDS encephalopathy. Human Pathology, 16, 760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sharer., L. R., Dowling, P., Micheals, J., Cook, S., Menonna, J., Blumberg, B., et al. (1990). Spinal cord disease in children with HIV-1 infection: A combined biological and neuropathological study. Neuropathology of Applied Neurobiology, 16, 317-331.Google Scholar
  142. Sharer, L. R., Epstein, L. G., Cho, E., Joshi, V. V., Meyenhofer, M. F., Rankin, L. F., et al. (1986). Pathologic features of AIDS encephalopathy in children: Evidence for LAV/HTLV-III infection of brain. Human Pathology, 17, 271-284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sheon, A. R., Fox, H. E., Rich, K. C., Startton, C., Diaz, C., Toumala, R. et al. (1996). The Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of maternal-infant HIV Transmission: design, methods, and baseline data. Journal of Women’s Health, 5, 69-78.Google Scholar
  144. Smith, R., Malee, K., Charurat, M., Magder, L., Mellins, C., MacMillan, C. et al. (2000). Timing of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection and rate of neurodevelopment. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 19, 862-871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cichetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  146. Sprecher, S., Soumenkoff, G., Puissant, F., & Degueldre, M. (1986). Vertical transmission of HIV in a 15-week fetus [letter]. Lancet, 2, 288-289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Steinberg S, & Fleming P. (2000). The geographic distribution of AIDS in the United States: Is there a rural epidemic? Journal of Rural Health, 16, 12-19.Google Scholar
  148. Tardieu, M. (1991). Brain imaging in pediatric HIV infection. In A. Belman, & A. M. Laverda (chairs), Pediatric HIV-1 infection: Neurological and neuropsychological aspects. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Neuroscience of HIV Infection: Basic and Clinical Frontiers, Padova, Italy, June.Google Scholar
  149. Tardieu, M., Blanche, S., Duliege, A., Rouzioux, C., & Griscelli, C. (1989). Neurologic involvement and prognostic factors after materno-fetal infection. Proceedings of the V International Conference on AIDS, 1, 194. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  150. Tardieu, M., Brunelle, F., Raybaud, C., Ball, W., Barret, B., Poutard, B., Lachassine, E., Mayaux, M.-J., & Blanche, S. (2005). Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 26, 695-701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Tarter, R. E., Edwards, K. L., van Thiel, D. H. (1988). Perspective and rationale for neuropsychological assessment of medical disease. In R. E. Tarter, D. H. van Thiel, & K. L. Edwards (Eds.), Medical neuropsychology: The impact of disease on behavior (pp. 1-10). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  152. Tepper, V., Farley, J. J., Rothman, M. I., Houck, D. L., Davis, K. F., Collins-Jones, T. L., & Wachtel, R. C. (1998). Neurodevelopmental/neuroradiologic recovery of a child infected with HIV after treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy using the HIV-specific protease inhibitor Ritonavir. Pediatrics, 101, e7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Toledo-Tamula, M. A., Wolters, P. L., Walsek, C. Zeichner, S., & Civitello, L. (2003). Cognitive decline with immunologic and virologic stability in four children with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatrics, 112, 679-684.Google Scholar
  154. Ultmann, M. H., Belman, A. L., Ruff., H. A., Novick, B. E., Cone-Wesson, B., Cohen, J. J., & Rubinstein, A. (1985). Developmental abnormalities in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 27, 563-571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ultmann, M. H., Diamond, G. W., Ruff, H. A., Belman, A. L., Novick, B. E., Rubinstein, A., et al. (1987). Developmental abnormalities in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A follow up study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 661-667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Vallat, A. V., De Girolami, U., He, J., Mhashilkar, A., Marasco, W., Shi, B. et al. (1998). Localization of the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in the brain of children with AIDS. American Journal of Pathology, 152, 167-178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wilfert, C. M., Wilson, C., Luzuriaga, K., & Epstein, L. (1994). Pathogenesis of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 170, 286-292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wynn, H. E. Brundage, R. C., & Fletcher, C. V. (2002). Clinical implications of CNS penetration of antiviral drugs. CNS Drugs, 16, 595-609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Civitello, L., & Moss, H. (1995). Receptive and expressive language function of children with symptomatic HIV infection and relationship with disease parameters: A longitudinal 24-month follow-up study. AIDS, 11, 1135-1144.Google Scholar
  160. Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Moss, H., & Pizzo, P. (1994). Adaptive behavior of children with symptomatic HIV infection before and after Zidovudine therapy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19, 47-61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Moss, H., el-Amin, D., Eddy, J., Butler, K., et al. (1990). The effect of 2'3' dideoxyinosine (ddI) on the cognitive functioning of infants and children with symptomatic HIV infection. Proceedings of the VI International Conference on AIDS, 3, 130 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  162. Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Moss, H., el-Amin, D., Gress, J., Butler, L., et al. (1991). The effect of dideoxyinosine on the cognitive functioning of children with HIV infection after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Proceedings from the VII International Conference on AIDS, 2, 194. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  163. World Health Organization (2005). Extracted from www who.int/hiv/epi-update2005.
  164. Zeichner, S., & Read, J. (Eds.). (2005). Textbook of pediatric HIV care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antolin M. Llorente
    • 1
  • Christine LoPresti
    • 2
  • Paul Satz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California School of Medicine, Neuropsychiatric Institute and HospitalLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations