Neuropsychological Aspects of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Sam Goldstein
  • Kordell Kennemer

The childhood cognitive and behavioral problems categorized as disorders of attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity have over the past 50 years presented a clinical challenge for neuropsychologists.


Heritability Estimate Conduct Disorder Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Dizygotic Twin Language Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaron, P. G., Joshi, R. M., Palmer, H., Smith, M., & Kirby, E. (2002). Separating genuine cases of reading disability from reading deficits caused by predominantly inattentive ADHD behavior. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 425-435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramowitz, A. J., & O’Leary, S. G. (1991). Behavior interventions for the classroom: Implications for students with ADHD. School Psychology Review, 20, 220-234.Google Scholar
  3. Abserson, B., Shure, M. B., & Goldstein, S. (2007). Social problem-solving intervention can help children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(1), 4-7.Google Scholar
  4. Accardo, P. J., Blondis, T. J., & Whitman, B. Y. (1990). Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics, 85, 426-431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Achenbach, T. M. (1996). Subtyping ADHD: The request for suggestions about relating empirically based assessment to DSM-IV. The ADHD Report, 4, 5-9.Google Scholar
  6. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1991). Normative data for the child behavior checklist - Revised. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  7. Altfas, J. R. (2002). Prevalence of ADHD among adults in obesity treatment. Biomedical Psychology, 2, 1-14.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. - Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  9. Anastopoulos, A. D., Barkley, R., & Shelton, T. (1994). The history and diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 96-110.Google Scholar
  10. Aylward, G. P., Verhulst, S. J., & Bell, S. (1993). Inter-relationships between measures of attention deficit disorders: Same scores, different reasons. Paper presented at the Society for Behavioral Pediatrics Meeting, September, Providence, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  11. Bagwell, C. L., Molina, D. S., Pelham, W. E., & Hoza, B. (2001). ADHD and problems in peer relations: Predictions from childhood to adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1285-1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker, L., & Cantwell, D. P. (1987). A prospective psychiatric follow-up of children with speech/language disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 26, 546-553.Google Scholar
  13. Baker, L., & Cantwell, D. P. (1992). Attention deficit disorder and speech/language disorders. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2, 3-16.Google Scholar
  14. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65-94.Google Scholar
  15. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S. & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria. An eight year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 546-557.Google Scholar
  16. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S. & Smallish, L. (1991). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria. III. Mother-child interactions, family conflicts and maternal psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 32, 233-255.Google Scholar
  17. Balthazor, M. J., Wagner, R. K., & Pelham, W. E. (1991). The Specificity of the effects of stimulant medication on classroom learning-related measures of cognitive processing for attention deficit disorder children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 35-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Barkley, R. A. (1991a). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessment methods of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 149-178.Google Scholar
  20. Barkley, R. A. (1991b). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 21, 725-733.Google Scholar
  21. Barkley, R. A. (1995). ADHD and I.Q. ADHD Report, 3, 1-3.Google Scholar
  22. Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2004). Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: Antisocial activities and drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 195-207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Barkley, R., & Gordon, M. (2002). Research on comorbidity, adaptive functioning and cognitive impairments in adults with ADHD: Implications for a clinical practice. In S. Goldstein & A. T. Ellison (Eds.), Clinician’s guide to adult ADHD: Assessment and intervention. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Barkley, R. A., & Grodzinsky, G. M. (1994). Are tests of frontal lobe functions useful in a diagnosis of attention deficit disorders? Clinical Neuropsychologists, 8, 121-139.Google Scholar
  26. Barkley, R. A., McMurray, M. B., Edelbrock, C. S., & Robbins, K. (1989). The response of aggressive and non-aggressive ADHD children to two doses of methylphenidate. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 873-881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bastain, T. M., Lewczyk, C. M., Sharp, W. S., James, R. S., Long, R. T., Eagen, P. B., et al. (2002). Cytogenetic abnormalities in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 806-810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, K., & Benjamin, J. (1992). Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives in psychiatrically and paediatrically referred samples. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 728-738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Benjamin, J., Li, L., Patterson, C., Greenberg, B. D., Murphy, D. L., & Hamer, D. H. (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. National Genetics, 12, 81.Google Scholar
  30. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, K., Knee, D., & Tsuang, M. T. (1990). Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM-III attention deficit disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 526-533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Mick, E., Wozniak, J., Chen, L., Ouelette, C., et al. (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in juvenile mania: An overlooked comorbidity? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 997-1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Biederman, J., Mick, E., Faraone, S. V., Braaten, E., Doyle, A., Spencer, T., et al. (2002). Influence of gender on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 36-42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bloom, D. R., Levin, H. S., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Saunders, A. E., Song, J., Fletcher, J. M., et al. (2001). Life time and novel psychiatric disorders after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 572-579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brand, E. F., Das-Smaal, E. A., & De Jonge, B. F. (1996). Subtypes of children with attention disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 2, 109-122.Google Scholar
  35. Braswell, L. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral approaches as adjunctive treatments for ADHD children and their families. In S. Goldstein & M. Goldstein (Eds.). Understanding and managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Cantwell, D. P., Baker, L., & Mattison, R. (1981). Prevalence, type and correlates of psy-chiatric disorder in 200 children with communication disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2, 131-136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cardon, L. R., Smith, S. D., Fulker, D. W., Kimberling, W. J., Pennington, B. F., & De Fries, J. C. (1994). Quantitative trait locus for reading disability in chromosome 6. Science, 266, 276-279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Carey, W. B. (1970). A simplified method for measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188-194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Carlson, C. L., & Mann, M. (2002). Sluggish cognitive tempo predicts a different pattern of impairment in the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Predominantly inattentive type. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 123-129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., et al. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607-616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Center for Disease Control. (2005). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54(34).
  42. Chabildas, N., Pennington, B. F., & Willicutt, E. G. (2001). A comparison of the neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 529-540.Google Scholar
  43. Cherkes-Julkowski, M., Stolzenberg, J., & Siegal, L. (1991). Prompted cognitive testing as a diagnostic compensation for attentional deficits: The Raven Standard Progressive Matrices and Attention Deficit Disorder. Learning Disabilities, 2, 1-7.Google Scholar
  44. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1986). Temperament in clinical practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  45. Clark, C., Prior, M., & Kinsella, G. J. (2000). Do executive function deficits differentiate between adolescents with ADHD and oppositional defiant/conduct disorder: A neuropsychological study using the Six Elements Test and the Hayling Sentence Completion Test. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 403-414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cohen, N. J., Davine, M., & Meloche-Kelly, M. (1989). Prevalence of unsuspected language disorders in a child psychiatric population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 107-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cohen, M. J., Sullivan, S., Minde, K. K., Novak, C., & Helwig, C. (1981). Evaluation of the relative effectiveness of methylphenidate and cognitive behavior modification in the treatment of kindergarten-aged hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 43-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Comings, D. E., Wu, S., & Chiu, C. (1996). Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 67, 264-288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Conners, C. K. (1994b). Conners Continuous Performance Test (Version 3.0) [User's Manual]. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Conners, C. K., (1995). Continuous Performance Test. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Conners, C. K. (1997). Conners Rating Scales - Revised. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  52. Conners, C. K. (2008). Conners comprehensive behavior rating scales. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  53. Cook, E. H., Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., et al. (1995). Association of attention deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. American Journal of Human Genetics, 56, 993-998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Crystal, D. S., Ostrander, R., Chen, R., & August, G. J. (2001). Multi-method assessment of psychopathology among DSM-IV subtypes of children with ADHD: Self, parent and teacher reports. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 189-205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cuffe, S. P., Moore, C. G., & Mckeown, R. E. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(2), 392-401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Daigneault, S., Braun, C. M. J., & Whitaker, H. A. (1992). An empirical test of two opposing theoretical models of prefrontal function. Brain and Cognition, 19, 48-71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dalsgaard, S., Mortenson, P., Frydenberg, M., & Thomsen, P. H. (2002). Conduct problems: Gender and adult psychiatric outcome of children with ADHD. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 416-421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. De Fries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1985). Multiple regression analysis of twin data. Behavioral Genetics, 15, 467-473.Google Scholar
  59. De Fries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1988). Multiple regression analysis of twin data: Etiology of deviant scores versus individual differences. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae (Roma), 37, 205-216.Google Scholar
  60. Devers, R., Bradley-Johnson, S., & Johnson, C. M. (1994). The effect of token reinforcement on WISC-R performance for fifth through ninth grade American Indians. Psychological Record, 44, 441-449.Google Scholar
  61. Douglas, V. I., Barr, R. G., O'Neill, M. E., & Britton, B. G. (1986). Short-term effects of methylphenidate on the cognitive, learning, and academic performance of children with attention deficit disorder in the laboratory and classroom. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 191-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Doyle, A. E., Biederman, J., & Seidman, L. J. (2000). Diagnostic efficacy of neuropsychological test scores for discriminating boys with and without ADHD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 477-488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Draeger, S., Prior, M., & Sanson, A. (1986). Visual and auditory attention performance in hyperactive children: Competence or compliance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 411-424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. DuPaul, G. J. (1990). Academic-performance rating scale and ADHD rating scale. Worcester, MA: Department of Psychiatry, University of Mass.Google Scholar
  65. DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Shelton, T. L., Guevremont, D. C., & Metevia, L. (1992). Multimethod assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: The diagnostic utility of clinic-based tests. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 394-402.Google Scholar
  66. DuPaul, G. J., Guevremont, D. C., & Barkley, R. A. (1991). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescence: Critical assessment parameters. Clinical Psychological Review, 11, 231-245.Google Scholar
  67. DuPaul, G. J., McGoey, K. E., Eckert, T. L., & Van Brakle, J. V. (2001). Preschool children with ADHD: Impairments in behavioral, social and school functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 508-515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Hewitt, J. K., Meyer, J., Rutter, M., Simonoff, E., et al. (1993). Genes, personality and psychopathology: A latent class analysis of liability to symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in twins. In R. Plomin & G. McClean (Eds.),Nature, nurture and psychology (pp. 285-303). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  69. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, O., Osher, Y., Blaine, D., et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4 DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. National Genetics, 12, 78-80.Google Scholar
  70. Edelbrock, C. (1990). Childhood attention problems (CAP) scale. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (pp. 320-321). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. Edelbrock, C., Rende, R., Plomin, R., & Thompson, L. A. (1995). A twin study of competence and problem behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 775-785.Google Scholar
  72. Eiraldi, R. B., Power, T. J., & Nezu, C. M. (1997). Patterns of comorbidity associated with subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among six-to-twelve year-old children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 503-514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ellis, A. W. (1985). The cognitive neuropsychology of development (and acquired) dyslexia: A critical survey. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2, 169-205.Google Scholar
  74. Faraone, S. V., & Biederman, J. (2005). What is the prevalence of adult ADHD? Results of a population screen of 966 adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(2), 384-391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Chen, W. J., & Krifcher, B. (1992). Segregation analyses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Genetics, 2, 257-275.Google Scholar
  76. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Friedman, D. (2000). Validity of DSM-IV subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family study perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59, 300-307.Google Scholar
  77. Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (1992). Attention deficit and reading achievement. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 375-385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gadow, K. D., Sprafkin, J., & Nolan, E. (2001). DSM-IV symptoms in community and clinic preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1383-1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gallagher, R., Fleiss, K., Etkovich, J., Cousins, L., Greenfield, B., Martin, D., et al. (2004). Social functioning in children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multi-modal psychosocial treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 820-829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Geurts, H. M., Verte, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). ADHD subtypes: Do they differ in their executive functioning profile? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 457-477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gillis, J. J., Gilger, J. W., Pennington, B. F., De Fries & J. C. (1992). Attention deficit disorders in reading disabled twins: evidence for a genetic etiology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 303-315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Glow, R. A., & Glow, P. H. (1980). Peer and self-rating: Children's perception of behavior relevant to hyperkinetic impulse disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 8, 471-490.Google Scholar
  83. Goldstein, S., & Ellison, A. T. (2002). Clinician’s guide to adult ADHD: Assessment and intervention. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  84. Goldstein, S., & Goldstein, M. (1998). Understanding and managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A guide for practitioners (2 nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Goldstein, S., & Naglieri, J. (2006). The role of intellectual processes in the DSM-V diagnosis of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10, 3-8.Google Scholar
  86. Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2005). Attention deficit disorder in adults. In S. Goldstein & C. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in adults. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  87. Goodman, R., & Stevenson, J. (1989). A twin study of hyperactivity: II. The aetiological role of genes, family relationships and perinatal activity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 691-709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gordon, M. (1993). Do computerized measures of attention have a legitimate role in ADHD evaluations? The ADHD Report, 1, 5-6.Google Scholar
  89. Gordon, M. (1995). How to own and operate an ADHD clinic. DeWitt, New York: Gordon Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  90. Gordon, M., Antshel, K., Faraone, S., Barkley, R., Lewandowski, L., Hudziak, J., et al. (2006). Symptoms versus impairment: The case for respecting DSM-IV’s Criterion D. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 465-475.Google Scholar
  91. Greenberg, L. (1991). Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). St. Paul, MN: Attention Technology.Google Scholar
  92. Guevremont, D. C., DuPaul, G. J., & Barkley, R. A. (1993). Behavioral assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of hyperactivity in children. Needham Heights, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  93. Hagerman, R. (1991). Organic causes of ADHD. ADD-VANCE, 3, 4-6.Google Scholar
  94. Hall, S. J., Halperin, J. M., Schwartz, S. T., & Newcorn, J. H. (1997). Behavioral and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reading disability. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 235-247.Google Scholar
  95. Halperin, J. M., Newcorn, J. H., Matier, K., Sharma, V., McKay, K. E., & Schwartz, S. (1993). Discriminant validity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1038-1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Harrier, L. K., & DeOrnellas, K. (2005). Performance of children diagnosed with ADHD on selected planning and reconstitution tests. Applied Neuropsychology, 12, 106-119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hart, C. C., & Harter, S. L. (2001). Measurement of right frontal lobe functioning and ADHD. Abstracts from the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Academy of Neuropsychology (October 31-November 3, 2001).Google Scholar
  98. Hechtman, L. (1993). Genetic and neurobiological aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review. Journal of Psychiatric Neuroscience, 9, 193-201.Google Scholar
  99. Hodgens, J., Cole, J., & Boldizar, J. (2000). Peer-based differences among boys with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 443-452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Homack, S. R., & Reynolds, C. R. (2005). Continuous Performance Testing in Differential Diagnosis of ADHD. The ADHD Report, 13(5), 5-9.Google Scholar
  101. Kagan, J. (1964). The Matching Familiar Figures Test. Unpublished. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  102. Kaplan, B. J., Crawford, S. G., Dewey, D. M., & Fisher, G. C. (2000). The I.Q.’s of children with ADHD are normally distributed. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 425-432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Katz, M. (1997). Playing a poor hand well. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.Google Scholar
  104. Klein, R. G. (1987). Pharmacotherapy of childhood hyperactivity: An update. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  105. Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., McBurnett, K., Biederman, J., Greenhill, L., Hyund, G., et al. (1994). DSM-IV field trial for attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1673-1685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Lee, S., & Willcutt, E. (2005). Instability of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 896-902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. LaHoste, G. J., Swanson, J. M., Wigal, S. B., Glabe, C., Wigal, T., King, N., et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 1, 121-124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Levine, M. D. (1992). Commentary: Attentional disorders: Elusive entities and their mistaken identities. Journal of Child Neurology, 7, 449-453.Google Scholar
  109. Levy, F., Hay, D. A., McStephen, M., Wood, C., & Waldman, I. (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 737-744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lowe, N., Kirley, A., Hawi, Z., Sham, P., Wickham, H., Kratochvil, C. J., et al. (2004). Joint analysis of the DRD5 marker concludes association with ADHD confined to the predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 348-356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Luk, S. L., Leung, P. W., & Yuen, J. (1991). Clinic observations in the assessment of pervasiveness of childhood hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 32, 833-850.Google Scholar
  112. Mautner, V. F., Kluwe, L., Thakker, S. D., & Laerk, R. A. (2002). Treatment of ADHD in Neurofibromatosis Type 1. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44, 164-170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. McGee, R. A., Clark, S. E., & Symons, D. K. (2000). Does the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test aid in ADHD diagnosis? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 415-424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. McGee, R., & Share, D. L. (1988). Attention deficit disorder hyperactivity and academic failure: Which comes first and what should be treated? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 318-325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Medco Health Solutions. (2005). ADHD medication use growing faster among adults than children. New Research,
  116. Milich, R. S., & Loney, J. (1979). The role of hyperactive and aggressive symptomatology in predicting adolescent outcome among hyperactive children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 93-112.Google Scholar
  117. Mirskey, A. F., Anthony, B. J., Duncan, C. C., Ahearn, M. B., & Kellam, S. G. (1991). Analysis of the elements of attention: A neuropsychological approach. Neuropsychology Review, 2, 109-145.Google Scholar
  118. Murphy, K., Barkley, R., & Bush, T. (2002). Young adults with ADHD: Subtype differences in comorbidity, educational and clinical history. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 1-11.Google Scholar
  119. Naglieri, J. A. (1999). Essentials for CAS Assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  120. Naglieri, J. (2000). Can profile analysis of ability test scores work? An illustration using the PASS theory and CAS with an unselected cohort. School Psychology Quarterly, 15, 419-433.Google Scholar
  121. Naglieri, J. A., & Das, J. P. (1997). Cognitive assessment system. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  122. Naglieri, J., Goldstein, S., Delauder, B., & Schwebach, A. (2005). Relationships between the WISC-III and the cognitive assessment system with Conners’ rating scales and continuous performance tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 385-401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Naglieri, J., Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). Can there be reliable identification of ADHD with divergent conceptualization and inconsistent test results? The ADHD Report, 12, 6-9.Google Scholar
  124. O'Neill, M. E., & Douglas, V. I. (1996). Rehearsal strategies and recall performance with boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 73-88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Paolito, A. W. (1999). Clinical validation of the cognitive assessment system for children with ADHD. The ADHD Report, 1, 1-5.Google Scholar
  126. Pelham, W. E. (1987). What do we know about the use and effects of CNS stimulants in ADD? In J. Loney (Ed.), The young hyperactive child: Answers to questions about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment (pp. 99-110). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  127. Pelham, W. E., & Bender, M. E. (1982). Peer relationships in hyperactive children. In K. D. Gadow & I. Bialer (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 365-436). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  128. Pelham, W. E., & Milich, R. (1984). Peer relations of children with hyperactivity/attention deficit disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 560-568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Riccio, C. A., Reynolds, C. R., & Lowe, P. A. (2001). Clinical applications of continuous performance tests: Measuring attention and impulsive responding in children and adults. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  130. Rutter, M., MacDonald, H., Lecoutier, A., Harrington, R., Bolton, P., & Bailey, A. (1990). Genetic factors in child psychiatric disorders. II. Empirical findings. Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry, 31, 39-83.Google Scholar
  131. Safer, D. J. (1973). A familial factor in minimal brain dysfunction. Behavioral Genetica, 3, 175-186.Google Scholar
  132. Satterfield, J. H., Hoppe, C. M., & Schell, A. M. (1982). A perspective study of delinquency in 110 adolescent boys with attention deficit disorder and 88 normal adolescent boys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 795-798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Seidman, L. J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Weber, W., Mennin, D., & Jones, J. (1997). A pilot study of neuropsychological functioning in girls with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 366-373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., Filipek, P., Biederman, J., Bekken, K., & Renshaw, P. F. (2000). Using MRI to examine brain-behavior relationships in males with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 477-484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sherman, D. K., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. K. (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder dimensions: A twin study of inattention and impulsivity-hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 745-753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Shure, M. (1994). Raising a thinking child. New York: Henry Holt Publishers.Google Scholar
  137. Silverthorn, P., Frick, P. J., Kuper, K., & Ott, J. (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sex: A test of two etiological models to explain the male predominance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 52-59.Google Scholar
  138. Stott, D. H. (1981). Behavior disturbance and failure to learn: A study of cause and effect. Educational Research, 23, 163-172.Google Scholar
  139. Swanson, J. M., Flodman, P., Kennedy, J., Spence, M. A., Moyzis, R., Schuck, S., et al. (2000). Dopamine genes and ADHD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 21-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Szatmari, P., Offord, D. R., Siegel, L. S., Finlayson, M. A., & Tuff, L. (1990). The clinical significance of neurocognitive impairments among children with psychiatric disorders: Diagnosis and situational specificity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 31, 287-299.Google Scholar
  141. Tarver-Behring, S., Barkley, R. A., & Karlsson, J. (1985). The mother-child interactions of hyperactive boys and their normal siblings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 355, 202-209.Google Scholar
  142. Teeter, P. A. (1998). Interventions for ADHD: Treatment in developmental context. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  143. Terestman, N. (1980). Mood quality and intensity in nursery school children as predictors of behavior disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50, 125-138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Thapar, A., Hervas, A., & McGuffin, P. (1995). Childhood hyperactivity scores are highly heritable and show siblings competition effects: twin study evidence. Behavioral Genetica, 35, 537-544.Google Scholar
  145. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  146. Ullmann, R. K., Sleator, E. K., & Sprague, R. K. (1988). ADD-H: Comprehensive Teacher's Rating Scale (2 nd ed.). Champaign, IL: MetriTech, Inc.Google Scholar
  147. Vaidya, C. J., Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Zalecki, C. A., Elliott, G. R., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2005). Altered neurosubstraits of cognitive control and childhood ADHD: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1605-1613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Voeller, K. S. (1991). Towards a neurobiologic nosology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 6, S2-S8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G., Fowler, J. S., Logan, J., Gerasimov, M., Maynard, L., et al. (2001). Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extra cellular dopamine in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1-5.Google Scholar
  150. Warren, R. P., Odell, J. D., Warren, L. W., Burger, R. A., Maciulis, A., Daniels, W. W., et al. (1995). Reading disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the immune system. Science, 268, 786-787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1979). The hyperactive child syndrome. Science, 205, 1348-1354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Wender, P. H. (1975). The minimal brain dysfunction syndrome. Annual Review of Medicine, 26, 45-62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1991). Therapies for hyperactive children: Comparisons, combinations and compromises. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 126-137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Collins, B., McAuliffe, S., & Vaux, A. (1979). Peer interaction in a structured communication task: Comparisons of normal and hyperactive boys and of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and placebo effects. Child Development, 50, 388-401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Willcutt, E. G., & Pennington, B. F. (2000). Comorbidity of reading disability, inattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Differences by gender and subtype. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 179-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Willerman, L. (1973). Activity level and hyperactivity in twins. Child Development, 44, 288-293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Winsberg, B. G., & Comings, D. E. (1999). Association of the dopamine transported gene (DAT1) with poor methylphenidate response. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1474-1477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Young, S., Chadwick, O., Heptinstall, E., Taylor, E., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2005). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 245-254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Zahn-Waxler, C., Schmitz, S., Fulker, D., Robinson, J., & Emde, R. (1996). Behavior problems in five-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins: Genetic and environmental influences, patterns of regulation, and internationalization of control. Developmental Psychopathology, 8, 103-122.Google Scholar
  160. Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., & Gross, M. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism adults with hyperactivity in childhood onset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 333-340.Google Scholar
  161. Zametkin, A. J., & Rapoport, J. L. (1987). Neurobiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: Where have we come in 50 years? Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 676-686.Google Scholar
  162. Zentall, S. S. (1984). Context effects in the behavioral ratings of hyperactivity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 345-352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Zentall, S. S. (1995). Modifying classroom tasks and environments. In S. Goldstein (Ed.). Understanding and managing children’s classroom behavior. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Goldstein
    • 1
  • Kordell Kennemer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of School PsychologyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxVirginia
  2. 2.Oregon State HospitalPortlandOregon

Personalised recommendations