Colostomy: Types, Indications, Formation, and Reversal

  • Thomas Garofalo


A colostomy is an artificial opening of the colon to the abdominal wall. There are several indications for formation of a colostomy. A colostomy can be created as a primary method of treatment or as a secondary form of treatment. This secondary form of treatment is designed to be reversed at a later time. The initial step in colostomy formation is education of the patient, and the second step is proper marking of the site of the planned colostomy. There are several types of colostomy. The main types are end colostomy and loop colostomy. Additionally the location of the colostomy within the colon varies, depending on nature of pathology and the intention of the treatment.

This chapter discusses the indications for a colostomy, the creation of the different types of colostomy and the details of their construction. Finally, this chapter will discuss the reversal of the different types of colostomy.


Abdominal Wall Sigmoid Colon Staple Line Rectus Muscle Loop Ileostomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Aldrete J. Diverting and venting colostomy techniques and colostomy closure. Mastery of surgery. 2nd ed., Volume II. Little, Brown, Inc: 1992. p. 1201–17.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Orkin BA, Cataldo PA. Intestinal stomas in the ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. 1st ed. Springer Science and Business Media; 2007. p. 622–42.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turnbull RB, Weakley F. End sigmoid colostomy. Atlas of intestinal stomas. 1st ed. The C.V. Mosby Company; 1967. p 145–51.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hebert J. A simple method for preventing retraction of and end colostomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1988;31(4):328–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasad ML, Pearl RK, Abcarian H. End loop colostomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1984;158(4):380–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keighley MRB. Stomas. Atlas of colorectal surgery. Churchill Livingstone, Inc: 1996. p. 61–92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guivarc’h M, Mosnier H, Roullet-Audy JC. Protective transverse loop colostomy associated with low colo-rectal anastomoses. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1997;12:340–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rutegard J, Dahlgren S. Transverse colostomy or loop ileostomy as diverting stoma in colorectal surgery. Acta Chir Scand. 1987;153:229–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams NS, Nasmyth DG, Jones D, Smith AH. De-functioning stomas: a prospective controlled trial comparing loop ileostomy with loop transverse colostomy. Br J Surg. 1986;73(7):566–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Turnbull RB, Hawk WA, Weakley FL. Surgical treatment of toxic megacolon: ileostomy and colostomy to prepare patients for colectomy. Am J Surg. 1971;122:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Remzi FH, Oncel M, Hull TL, Strong SA, Lavery IC, Fazio VW. Current indications for blow-hole colostomy:ileostomy procedure. A single center experience. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2003;18:361–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ooi BS, Remzi FH, Fazio VW. Turnbull blowhole colostomy for toxic ulcerative colitis in pregnancy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46(1):111–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prager E. The continent colostomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1984;27:235–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schmidt E, Bruch HP, Romen W, Rothhammer A. Experimental and clinical studies on continent colostomy. Eur Surg Res. 1981;13:202–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmidt E. The continent colostomy. World J Surg. 1982;6:805–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Torres RA, Gonzalez MA. Perineal continent colostomy: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 1988;31:957–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Santoro E, Santoro R, Santoro E. Perineal reconstruction with ­continent colostomy after the miles operation. Semin Surg Oncol. 1994;10:208–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease InstituteCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations