Epidemiology of Hormone-Associated Cancers as a Reflection of Age

  • Svetlana V. Ukraintseva
  • Konstantin G. Arbeev
  • Anatoli I. Yashin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 630)


In this chapter we review the epidemiology of hormone-associated cancers (prostate, breast, endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic and thyroid) paying special attention to the variability in the age patterns of cancer incidence rate over populations and time periods. We emphasize the comparative analysis of the age specific incidence rate curves as a valuable source of hypotheses about factors influencing cancer risks in populations in addition to the analysis of the age-adjusted rates.


Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer Thyroid Cancer Endometrial Cancer Prostate Cancer Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M et al. eds. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2004. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2007 (, based on November 2006 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2007).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stewart BW, Kleihues P. eds. World cancer report. IARC, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parkin DM, Bray FI, Devesa SS. Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37(Suppl 8):S4–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sener SF, Grey N. The global burden of cancer. J Surg Oncol 2005; 92(1):1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    IARC. Cancer incidence in five continents. Volumes I–VIII. IARC Sci Publ Lyon: IARC Press, 1965-2002.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IARC. Cancer incidence in five continents. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J et al. eds. Volume VII. IARC Sci Publ No 143. Lyon: IARC Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    IARC. Cancer incidence in five continents. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J et al. eds. Cancer incidence in five continents, Vol VIII. IARC Sci Publ No. 155. Lyon: IARC Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol 1–88. Lyon: IARC Press, 1972–2006. Scholar
  9. 9.
    IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 72. Lyon: IARC Press, 1999 (data on hormonal contraception and postmenopausal hormonal therapy).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL et al. eds. SEER cancer statistics review, 1973–1998. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2001, posted to the SEER web site in 2001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rainsford J, Cohen P, Dix D. On the role of aging in cancer incidence: Analysis of the lung cancer data. Anticancer Res 1985; 5(4):427–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Volpe EW, Dix D. On the role of aging in cancer incidence: Cohort analyses of the lung cancer data. Anticancer Res 1986; 6(6):1417–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ukraintseva SV, Yashin AI. Economic progress as cancer risk factor: Part II. Why is overall cancer risk higher in more developed countries? Max Planck Institute WP-2005-022, 2005. http://www.demogr. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuramoto K, Matsushita S, Esaki Y et al. [Prevalence, rate of correct clinical diagnosis and mortality of cancer in 4,894 elderly autopsy cases] Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1993; 30(1):35–40. (in Japanese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stanta G, Campagner L, Cavallieri F et al. Cancer of the oldest old. What we have learned from autopsy studies. Clin Geriatr Med 1997; 13(1):55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pompei F, Polkanov M, Wilson R. Age distribution of cancer in mice: The incidence turnover at old age. Toxicol Ind Health 2001; 17(1):7–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anisimov VN, Ukraintseva SV, Yashin AI. Cancer in experimental animals: Does it tell us about cancer in humans? Nature Reviews Cancer 2005; 5(10):807–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arbeev KG, Semenchenko AV, Anisimov VN et al. Relationship between cancer and aging: Experimental evidence and mathematical modeling considerations. Presented at: Population Association of America 2004 Annual Meeting. USA: Boston, MA, 2004.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vaupel J, Yashin AI. Cancer Rates over Age, Time and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations. WP #88-01-1 of the Center for Population Analysis and Policy, University of Minnesota, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ukraintseva SV, Yashin AI. How individual aging may influence human morbidity and mortality patterns. Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122:1447–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ukraintseva SV, Yashin AI. Individual aging and cancer risk: How are they related? Demographic Research 2003; 9–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kehinde EO, Akanji AO, Memon A et al. Prostate cancer risk: The significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men. Int Urol Nephrol 2006; 38(1):33–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Severi G, Morris HA, MacInnis RJ et al. Circulating steroid hormones and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15(1):86–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Platz EA et al. Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study. Int J Cancer 2007; 121:1571–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis. Journal of Nutrition 2004; 134(4):919–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang Y, Kreger BE, Dorgan JF et al. Parental age at child’s birth and son’s risk of prostate cancer. The Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150(11):1208–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ewertz M, Duffy SW, Adami HO et al. Age at first birth, parity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 8 studies from the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 1990; 46(4):597–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dupont WD, Page DL. Breast cancer risk associated with proliferative disease, age at first birth, and a family history of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 125(5):769–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang Y, Cupples LA, Rosenberg L et al. Parental ages at birth in relation to a daughter’s risk of breast cancer among female participants in the Framingham Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1995; 6(1):23–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Choi JY, Lee KM, Park SK et al. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: A case control study. BMC Cancer 2005; 5:143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N et al. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(16):1670–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katalinic A, Rawal R. Decline in breast cancer incidence after decrease in utilisation of hormone replacement therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288:321–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Steinberg KK, Thacker SB, Smith SJ et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1991; 265(15):1985–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Health for all. Data Base. WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2000.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    EUCAN: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence in the European Union in 1996, version 3.1. Ferlay J, Bray F, Sankila R et al. IARC Cancer Base No. 4. Lyon: IARC Press, 1999 (a product of European Network of Cancer Registries).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Health in Russia. 1999 Statistics. Russian Ministry of Health publication, 2000.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lacey Jr JV, Mink PJ, Lubin JH et al. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer. JAMA 2002; 288(3):334–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li C, Heidt DG, Dalerba P et al. Identification of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67(3):1030–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al. Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 2007; 57:43–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    GLOBOCAN: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. Ferlay J, Parkin DM, Pisani P. eds. IARC Cancer Base No 3. Lyon: IARC Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Health, United States, 1996–97 and Injury Chartbook. National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville, Maryland: 1997. http://www/ Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith D. Changing causes of death of elderly people in the United States, 1950–1990. Gerontology 1998; 44:331–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith D. Resistance to causes of death: A study of cancer mortality resistance in the oldest old. In: Robine JM, ed. The paradoxes of longevity. Springer Verlag, 1999:61–71.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aksel E, Dvoirin V. [Statistics of Malignant Neoplasms.]. Moscow: VONTS AMN SSSR, 1991 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T et al. Cancer statistics, 2004. CA Cancer J Clin 2004; 54:8–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svetlana V. Ukraintseva
    • 1
  • Konstantin G. Arbeev
    • 1
  • Anatoli I. Yashin
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Population Health and AgingDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations