Multiple Motivational Forces Contribute to Nicotine Dependence

  • Athina Markou
  • Neil E. Paterson
Part of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation book series (NSM, volume 55)


Approximately 40% of current smokers attempt to quit each year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005), but only 10–15% succeed (Fiore, Smith, Jorenby, & Baker, 1994), with relapse to smoking often occurring during the first few days or weeks of abstinence (al'Absi, Hatsukami, Davis, & Wittmers, 2004; Piasecki, Jorenby, Smith, Fiore, & Baker, 2003). The low success rate of quit attempts suggests that there are powerful motivational forces that maintain the tobacco smoking habit. One of the main psychoactive ingredients in tobacco smoke that is responsible for its highly addictive properties is nicotine (Bardo, Green, Crooks, & Dwoskin, 1999; Crooks & Dwoskin, 1997; Dwoskin, Teng, Buxton, & Crooks, 1999; Stolerman & Jarvis, 1995). Thus, much psychological and neurobiological research is focused on understanding the factors that contribute to nicotine dependence in order to shed light onto the factors that underlie addiction to tobacco smoking.

In this chapter, we...


Conditioned Stimulus Nicotine Dependence Nicotine Withdrawal Nicotine Administration Brain Reward 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



AM was supported by Research Grant 15RT-0022 from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the State of California, and NIH grants U01 MH69062, R01 DA11946 and R01 DA023209. NEP was supported by postdoctoral fellowship 14FT-0056 from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the State of California and the Peter F. McManus Charitable Trust. The authors would like to thank Mr. Michael Arends for editorial assistance, and Ms. Janet Hightower for graphics. Finally, the authors would like to thank Drs. John Cryan, Adrie Bruijnzeel, Mark Epping-Jordan, Amanda Harrison, Paul Kenny, Svetlana Semenova, Cecile Spielewoy, Serge Ahmed and Shelly Watkins for their great experimental and intellectual contribution to this research program.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatrySchool of Medicine, University of CaliforniaLa Jolla, San DiegoUSA

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