Impacts of Subsistence Game Hunting on Amazonian Primates

  • Benoit de Thoisy
  • Cécile Richard-Hansen
  • Carlos A. Peres
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Conservation Biology Spider Monkey Howler Monkey Hunting Pressure Primate Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, S. E. 2000. Resident attitudes toward conservation and Black howler monkeys in Belize: the Community Baboon Sanctuary. Environmental Conservation 27:341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvard, M. S., Robinson, J. G., Redford, K. H., and Kaplan, H. 1997. The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 11:977–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayres, J. M., Lima, L. M., Martins, E. S., and Barreiros J. L. K. 1991. On the track of the road: changes in subsistence hunting in a Brazilian Amazonian village. In J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds), Neotropical Wildife Use and Conservation (pp 82–92). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Azevado-Ramos, C., Domingues do Amaral, B., Nepstad, D. C., Filho, B. S., and Nasi, R. 2006. Integrating ecosystem management, protected areas, and mammal conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecology and Society 11:art 17.Google Scholar
  5. Balée, W. 1989. The culture of Amazonian forests. Advances in Economic Botany 7:1–21.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, A. A., Borges, S. H., de Castilho, C. V., Neri, F. M., and Shapley, R. L. 2002. Primates of the Jaú national park, Amazonas, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 10:65–70.Google Scholar
  7. Bermejo, M., Rodriguez, J. D., Illera, G., Barroso, A., Vila, C., and Walsh, P. D. 2006. Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas. Science 314:1564.Google Scholar
  8. Bodmer, R. E. 1995. Managing Amazonian wildlife: biological correlates of game choice by detribalized hunters. Ecological Applications 5:872–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodmer, R., and Robinson, J. 2004. Evaluating the sustainability of hunting in the neotropics. In K. Silvius, R. Bodmer and J. Fragoso (eds.), People in nature: wildlife conservation in South and Central America (pp. 299–323). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bollen, A., and Donati, G. 2006. Conservation status of the littoral forest of south-eastern Madagascar: a review. Oryx 40:57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brockelman, W. Y., and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and sampling forest primate populations. In C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest (pp. 23–42).New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Burney, D. A. 1999. Rates, patterns, and the processes of landscape transformation and extinction in Madagascar. In R. D. E. MacPhee (ed.), Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences (pp. 145–164). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  13. Burney, D. A, Burney, L. P., Godfrey, L. R., Junters, W. J., Goodman, S. M., Wright, H. T., and Jull, A. J. 2004. A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 47:25–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butchart, S. H. M., Barnes, R., Davies, C. W. N., Fernandez, M., and Seddon, N. 1995. Observations of two threatened primates in the Peruvian Andes. Primate Conservation 1:15–19.Google Scholar
  15. Cartelle, C., and Hartwig, W. C. 1996. A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:6405–6409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colell, M., Maté, C., and Fa, J. E. 1995. Hunting among Moka Bubis: dynamics of faunal exploitation at the village level. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:939–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cormier, L. A. 2003. Kinship with monkeys: the Guajà foragers of Eastern Amazonia. New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cormier, L. A. 2006. A preliminary review of neotropical primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American people. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 2:14–32.Google Scholar
  19. Costa, L. P., Leite, Y. L. R., Mendes S. L., and Ditchfield, A. D. 2005. Mammal conservation in Brazil. Conservation Biology 19:672–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cowlishaw, G. 1999. Predicting the pattern of decline of African primate diversity: an extinction debt from historical deforestation. Conservation Biology 13:1183–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Granville, J. J. 1988. Phytogeographical characteristics of the Guianan forests. Taxon 37:578–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Thoisy, B. 2000. Line-transects: sampling application to a rainforest in French Guiana. Mammalia 64:101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Thoisy, B., and Renoux, F. 2004. Status of the lowland tapir in French Guiana: hunting pressure and threats on habitats. Second International Tapir Symposium, TSG/SSC/IUCN, Panama.Google Scholar
  24. de Thoisy, B., Renoux, F., and Julliot, C. 2005. Hunting in northern French Guiana and its impacts on primates communities. Oryx 39:149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Thoisy, B., Brosse, S., Richard-Hansen, C., and Thierron, V. 2006. Rapid evaluation of relationships between impacts of forest anthropic activities and threats on biodiversity in French Guiana. VII Congresso Internacional sobre manejo de fauna silvestre na Amazônia e América latina. Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil.Google Scholar
  26. De Souza-Mazurek R. M., Pedrinho, T., Feliciano, X., Hilário, W., Gerˆncio, S., and Marcelo, E. 2000. Subsistence hunting among the Waimiri Atroari Indians in central Amazonia, Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 9:579–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Emmons, L. H. 1984. Geographic variation in densities and diversities of non flying mammals in Amazonia. Biotropica 16:210–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferrari, S. F., Emidio-Silva, C., Aperecida Lopes, M., and Bobadilla, U. L. 1999. Bearded sakis in South-eastern Amazonia – back from the brink? Oryx 33:346–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Franzen, M. 2006. Evaluating the sustainability of hunting: a comparison of harvest profiles across three Huaorani communities. Environmental Conservation 33:36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Freese, C. H., Heltne, P. G., Castro, N., and Whitesides, G. 1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey densities in Peru and Bolivia, with notes on distribution. International Journal of Primatology 3:53–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fusari, A., and Carpaneto, G. M. 2000. Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 9:1571–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fusari A., and Carpaneto, G. M. 2006. Subsistence hunting and conservation issues in the game reserve of Gile, Mozambique. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:2477–2495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garcia, G., and Goodman, S. M. 2003. Hunting of protected animals in the Parc National d’Ankarafantsika, north-western Madagascar. Oryx 37:115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goossens, B., Chikhi, L., Ancrenaz, M., Lackman-Ancrenaz, I., Andau, P., and Brudford M. W. 2006. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in Orang Utans. PLoS Biology 4:e25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gonzales-Solis, J., Mateos, E., Manosa, S., Ontanon, M., Gonzlez-Martin, M. and Guix, J. C. 1996. Abundance estimates of primates in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 60:488–491.Google Scholar
  36. Hackel, J. D. 1999. Community conservation and the future of Africa’s wildife. Conservation Biology 13:726–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hammond, D. S., Gond, V., de Thoisy, B., Forget P. M., and DeDijn, B. 2007. Causes and consequences of a tropical forest gold rush in the Guiana Shield, South America. Ambio 36:661–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris, R. B., Wall, W. A., and Allendorf, F. W. 2002. Genetic consequences of hunting: what do we know and what should we do? Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:634–643.Google Scholar
  39. Haugaasen, T., and Peres, C. A. 2005. Primate assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. American Journal of Primatology 67:243–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill, C. M. 2002. Primate conservation and local communities – ethical issues and debates. American Anthropologist 104:1184–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill, K., and Padwe, J. 2000. Sustainability of Aché hunting in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests (pp. 79–105). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Isaac, N. J. B., and Cowlishaw, G. 2004. How species respond to multiple extinction threats. Proceedings Royal Society of London B 271:1135–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed October 2006.Google Scholar
  44. Jernvall, J., and Wright, P. C. 1998. Diversity components of impending primate extinctions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 95:11279–11283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jerozolimski, A., and Peres, C. A. 2003. Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests. Biological Conservation 111:415–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jiang, X., Luo, Z., Zhao, S., Li, R, and Liu, C. 2006. Status and distribution pattern of black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) in Wuliang Mountains, Yunnan, China: implication for conservation. Primates 47:264–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johns, A. D. 1991. Forest disturbance and Amazonian primates. In H. O. Box (ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Changes (pp. 115–135). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Johns A. D., and Skorupa, J. P. 1987. Responses of rain-forest primates to habitat disturbance: a review. American Journal of Primatology 8:157–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson, K. 1996. Hunting in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Swara Jan–Feb:24–27.Google Scholar
  50. Jorgenson, J. P. 2000. Wildlife conservation and game harvest by Maya hunters in Quintina Roo, Mexico. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, (pp. 251–266). New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kracke, W. H. 1978. Force and persuasion, leadership in an Amazonian society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kumara, H. N., and Singh, M. 2004. The influence of differing hunting practices on the relative abundance of mammals in two rainforest areas of the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 38:321–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lahm, S. A. 1993. Utilization of forest resources and local variation of wildlife populations in Northeastern Gabon. In C. M. Hladik, A. Hladik, O. F. Linarea, H. Pagezy, A. Semple and M. Hadley (eds.), Tropical Forest, People and Food (pp. 213–226). Paris: Parthenon Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  54. Larson, S., Jameson, R., Bodkin, J., Staedler, M., and Bentzen, P. 2002. Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA variation in remnant and translocated sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations. Journal of Mammalogy 83:893–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lehman, S. M. 2000. Primate community structure in Guyana: a biogeographic analysis. International Journal of Primatology 21:333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leo Luna, M. 1987. Primate conservation in Peru: a case study of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey. Primate Conservation 8:122–123.Google Scholar
  57. Lindeman, J. C., and Mori, S. A. 1989. The Guianas. In D. G. Campbell and H. D Hammond (eds.), Floristic Inventories of Tropical Countries: The Status of Plants Systematics, Collections and Vegatation, Plus Recommendations for the Future (pp. 375–390). New York: New York Botanical Garden.Google Scholar
  58. Lopes, M. A., and Ferrari, S. F. 2000. Effects of human colonization on the abundance and diversity of mammals in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Conservation Biology 14:1658–1665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Madhusudan, M. D., and Karanth, K. U. 2002. Local hunting and the conservation of large mammals in India. Ambio 31:49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McSweeney, K. 2005. Indigenous population growth in the lowland Neotropics: social science insights for biodiversity. Conservation Biology 19:1375–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mena, V. P., Stallings, J. R., Regalado, B. J., and Cueva, L. R. 2000. The sustainability of current hunting practices by the Huaorani. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests (pp. 57–78). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Milner-Gulland, E. J., Bennett, E. L. and the SCB 2002. Annual Conference Wild Meat Group. 2003. Wild meat: the bigger picture. Trends on Ecology and Evolution 18:351–357.Google Scholar
  63. Milner, J. M., Nilsen, E. B., and Andreassen H. P. 2007. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores. Conservation Biology 21:36–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mittermeier, R. A. 1991. Hunting and its effects on wild primate populations in Suriname. In J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds.), Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation, (pp. 93–106). Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Mittermeier, R. A., Valladares-Pádua, C., Rylands, A. B, Eudey, A. A, Butynski, T. M., Jörg, U. Ganzhorn, J. U., Rebecca Kormos, R., Aguiar J. M., and Walker, S. 2005. The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2004–2006. IUCN/Primate Specialist Group and International Primatological Society.Google Scholar
  66. Muchaal, P. K., and Ngandjui, G. 1999. Impact of village hunting on wildlife populations in the Western Dja Reserve, Cameroon. Conservation Biology 13:385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nijman, V. 2004. Effects of habitat disturbance and hunting on the density and the biomass of the endemic Hose’s leaf monkey Presbytis hosei (Thomas, 1889) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae) in east Borneo. Contributions to Zoology 73:art4.Google Scholar
  68. Novaro, A. J., Redford, K. H. and Bodmer, R. E. 2000. Effect of hunting in source-sink systems in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 14:713–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nuñez-Iturri, G., and Howe, H. F. 2007. Bushmeat and the fate of trees with seeds dispersed by large primates in a lowland rainforest in western Amazonia. Biotropica 39:348–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Oates, J. F. 1996. Habitat alteration, hunting and the conservation of folivorous primates in African forests. Australian Journal of Ecology 21:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ohl-Schacherer, J., Shepard, G. H., Kaplan, H., Peres, C. A., Levi, T; Yu, D.W. 2007. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka Native communities in Manu National Park, Peru. Conservation Biology 21:1174–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Olupot, W. 2000. Mass differences among male Mangabey monkeys inhabiting logged and unlogged forest compartments. Conservation Biology 14:833–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pacheco, L. F, and Simonetti, J. A. 2000. Genetic structure of a Mimosoid tree deprived of its sed disperser, the spider monkey. Conservation Biology 14:1766–1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian primate communities. Biological Conservation 54:47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peres, C. A. 1991. Humboldt’s woolly monkeys decimated by hunting in Amazonia. Oryx 25:89–95.Google Scholar
  76. Peres, C. A. 1997a. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:381–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Peres, C. A. 1997b. Effects of habitat quality and hunting pressure on arboreal folivore densities in neotropical forests: a case study of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.). Folia Primatologica 68:199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peres, C. A. 1999. Effects of hunting and habitat quality on Amazonian primate communities. In J. G. Fleagle, C. Janson and K.E. Reed (eds.), Primate Communities (pp. 268–283). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Peres, C. A. 2000a. Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology 14:240–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peres, C. A. 2000b. Evaluating the impact and sustainability of subsistence hunting at multiple Amazonian forest sites. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests (pp. 31–57). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Peres, C. A., and Terborgh, J. W. 1995. Amazonian nature reserves: an analysis of the defensibility status of existing conservation units and design criteria for the future. Conservation Biology 9:34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peres, C. A., and Dolman, P. 2000. Density compensation in neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56 hunted and non-hunted Amazonian forests of varying productivity. Oecologia 122:175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Peres, C. A., and van Roosmalen, M. 2002. Patterns of primate frugivory in Amazonia and the Guianan shield: implications to the demography of large-seeded plants in overhunted tropical forests. In D. Levey, W. Silva and M. Galetti (eds.) Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (pp. 407–423). Oxford: CABI International.Google Scholar
  84. Peres, C. A., and Lake, I. R. 2003. Extent of nontimber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility, to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Conservation Biology 17: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peres, C. A., and Nascimento, H. S. 2006. Impact of game hunting by the Kayapó of southeastern Amazonia: implications for wildlife conservation in Amazonian indigenous reserves. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:2627–2653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peres, C.A, Barlow, J., and Laurance, W. 2006. Detecting anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:227–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peres, C. A., and Palacios, E. 2007. Basin-wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica 39:304–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Perez, V., Godfrey, L. R., Nowak-Kemp, M., Burney, D. A., Ratsimbazafy, J., and Vasey, N. 2005. Evidence of early butchery of giant lemurs in Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 49:722–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ratiarison, S., and Forget, P. M. 2005. Frugivores and seed removal at Tetragastris altissima (Burseraceae) in a fragmented forested landscape of French Guiana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Redford, K. H., and Robinson, J. G. 1987. The game of choice: patterns of Indian and colonist hunting in the Neotropics. American Anthropologist 89:650–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Redford, K. H., and Robinson, J. G. 1991. Subsistence and commercial uses of wildlife in Latin America. In J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds.), Neotropical Willdife Use and Conservation (pp. 6–23). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. Refish, J., and Koné, I. 2005. Impacts of commercial hunting on monkey populations in the Taï region, Côte d’Ivoire. Biotropica 37:136–144.Google Scholar
  93. Renoux, F. 1998. Se nourrir à Trois Sauts: analyse diachronique de la prédation chez les Wayãpi du Haut-Oyapock. Journal d’Agriculture Traditionnelle et de Botanique Appliquée 40: 167–180.Google Scholar
  94. Richard-Hansen, C., and Hansen. E. 2004. Hunting and wildlife management in French Guiana: current aspects and future prospects. In K. Silvius, R. Bodmer and J. Fragoso (eds.), People in Nature: Wildlife Conservation in south and central America (pp. 400–410). New York, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Richard-Hansen, C., Khazraie, K., Mauffrey, J.-F., and Gaucher, P. 2004. Pratiques de chasse dans un village isolé du centre de la Guyane: Evaluation de l’impact sur les populations animales. 6th International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, 6–9 juillet, Paris.Google Scholar
  96. Richard-Hansen, C., and Niel, C. 2005. “Estimer les faibles densités d’espèces chassées en Guyane avec peu d’observations: Proposition de calcul d’une “largeur effective de comptage” (Effective Strip Width, ou ESW) spécifique”. ONCFS, Rapport scientifique 2004:22–27.Google Scholar
  97. Richard-Hansen, C., Gaucher, P., Maillard, J.-F., and Ulitzka, M. 2006. Análisis comparativa de la cacería en tres pueblos de comunidades indígenas en Guyana Francesa. VII Congreso Internacional sobre Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en la Amazonía y Latinoamérica, Ilhéus, Brazil.Google Scholar
  98. Robinson, J. G. 2000. Calculating maximum sustainable harvests and percentage offtakes. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests (pp. 521–524). New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Ruiz-Garcia, M. 2005. The use of several microsatellite loci applied to 13 neotropical primate revealed a strong recent bootleneck event in the woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha) in Colombia. Primate Report 71:27–55.Google Scholar
  100. Russo, S. E., Portnoy, S., and Augspurger C. K. 2006. Incorporating animal behavior into seed dispersal models: implications for seed shadows. Ecology 87:3160–3174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwartzmann, S., and Zimmerman, B. 2005. Conservation alliances with indigenous people of the Amazon. Conservation Biology 19:721–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Serio-Silva, J. C., and Rico-Gray, V. 2002. Interacting effects of forest fragmentation and howler monkey foraging on germination and dispersal of figs. Oryx 36:266–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shepard, G. H. 2002. Primates in Matsigenka subsistence and World view. In A. Fuentes and D. Wolfe (eds.), Primates Face to Face: The Conservation Implications of Human-Non Human Primate Interconnections (pp. 101–136). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, N. J. H. 1976. Utilization of game along Brazil’s Transamazon Highway. Acta Amazonica 6:455–466.Google Scholar
  105. Stearman, A. M. 1990. The effects of settler incursion on fish and game resources of the Yuqui, a native Amazonian society of eastern Bolivia. Human Organization 49:373–385.Google Scholar
  106. Stoner, K. E., Vulinec, K., Wright, S. J., and Peres, C. A. 2007. Hunting and plant community dynamics in tropical forests: a synthesis. Biotropica 39:385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sussman, R. W, and Phillips-Conroy, J. E. 1995. Survey of the distribution and density of primates of Guyana. International Journal of Primatology 16:761–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Urbani, B. 2006. A survey of primate populations in Northeastern Venezuelan Guayana. Primate Conservation 20:47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vaughan, C. 1993. Human population and wildlife: a Central American focus. Transactions of the 58th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conferences.Google Scholar
  110. Vickers, W. T. 1991. Hunting yields and game composition over ten years in an Amazon Indian territory. In J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds.), Neotropical Willdife Use and Conservation (pp. 53–81). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  111. Wadley, R. L., Carol, J., Pierce Colfer, C. J. P., and Hood, I. G. 1997. Hunting primates and managing forests: the case of Iban Forest Farmers in Indonesian Borneo. Human Ecology 25:243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Walsh, P. D., Abernethy, K. A., Bermejo, M., Beyers, R., de Watcher, P., Akou, M. E., Huljbregts, B., Mambounga, D. I., Toham, A. K., Kilbourn, A. M., Lahm, S. A., Latour, S., Maisels, F., Mbina, C., Mihindou, Y., Oblang, S. N., Effa, E. N., Starkey, M. P., Telfer, P., Thibault, M., Tutin, C. E. G., White, L. J. T., and Wilkie, D. S. 2003. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature 422:611–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilkie, D. S., Curran, B., Tshombe, R, and Morelli, G. A. 1998. Modeling the sustainability of subsistence farming and hunting in the Ituri Forest of Zaire. Conservation Biology 12:137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Young, T. P., and Isbell, L. A 1994. Minimum group size and other conservation lessons exemplified by a declining primate population. Biological Conservation 68:129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benoit de Thoisy
    • 1
  • Cécile Richard-Hansen
  • Carlos A. Peres
  1. 1.Kwata NGO, Association Kwata, “Study and conservation of Guianan Wildlife”French Guiana

Personalised recommendations