Advertisement

Mechanical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Structures Through On-Chip Tests

  • Alberto Corigliano
  • Fabrizio Cacchione
  • Sarah Zerbini
Chapter

13.1 Introduction

The field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) [27, 41, 42, 50, 51] is moving from its pioneering period to a growing diffusion phase. Many large-scale applications can nowadays be found in various fields of engineering: automotive, aerospace, consumer.

The large-scale industrial production obliges producers to more carefully focus on reliability issues related to various causes of failures and in particular on mechanical failures such as fatigue and fracture induced by accidental drop. It is therefore of paramount importance to measure and control the mechanical properties of materials used in MEMS and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), in primis of polysilicon, which is by far the most diffused material in the production of MEMS. The successful fabrication and the reliable use of structures with feature sizes in the range of 1 μm to 1 mm is strongly contingent on a sufficiently rigorous understanding of their length-scale-dependent and process-dependent...

Keywords

Mechanical Characterization Sacrificial Layer Capacitance Variation Electrostatic Actuator Weibull Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The contributions of EU NoE Design for Micro & Nano Manufacture (PATENT-DfMM), contract No.: 507255 and of Cariplo foundation contract no. 2005–06–49 “Innovative models for the study of the behaviour of solids and fluids in micro/nano-electromechanical systems” are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    1. Ando T, Shikida M, Sato K (2001) Sens. Actuators A 93:70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    2. Bagdahn J, Sharpe Jr WN (2003) Sens. Actuators A Phys. 103:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    3. Bagdahn J, Sharpe Jr WN, Jadaan O (2003) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    4. Ballarini R, Mullen RL, Yin Y, Kahn H, Stemmer S, Heuer AH (1997) J. Mater. Res. 12(4):915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ballarini R, Mullen RL, Kahn H, Heuer AH (1998) In: Proceedings MRS Symposium, vol. 518, 13–17 April, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 33Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    6. Ballarini R, Kahn H, Heuer AH, De Boer MP, Dugger MT (2003) In: Milne I, Ritchie RO, Karihaloo B (eds) Comprehensive Structural Integrity, vol. 8. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003, chap. 9, pp. 325–360Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    7. Bažant Z, Xi Y, Reid S (1991) J. Eng. Mech. ASCE 117:2609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    8. Cacchione F, Corigliano A, De Masi B, Riva C (2005) Microelectron. Reliab. 45:1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cacchione F, De Masi B, Corigliano A, Ferrera M, Vinay A (2005) In: Proceedings NSTI Nanotech, 8–12 May, Anaheim, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    10. Cacchione F, De Masi B, Corigliano A, Ferrera M (2006) Sensor Lett. 4(1):38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    11. Cacchione F, Corigliano A, De Masi B, Ferrera M (2006) Sensor Lett. 4(2):184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    12. Chasiotis I (2006) J. Appl. Mech. 73:714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    13. Chasiotis I, Cho SW, Jonnalagadda K (2006) J. Appl. Mech. 73:714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    14. Chasiotis I, Knauss WG (2002) Exp. Mech. 42(1):51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    15. Chasiotis I, Knauss WG (2003) J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51:1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    16. Chasiotis I, Knauss WG (2003) J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51:1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    17. Chen GS, Ju MS, Fang YK (2000) Sens. Actuators A 86:108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    18. Chen MH, Leipold (1980) Ceram. Bull. 59:469Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    19. Chi SP, Wensyang H (1999) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    20. Cho SW, Chasiotis I (2007) Exp. Mech. 47:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    21. Corigliano A, De Masi B, Frangi A, Comi C, Villa A, Marchi M (2004) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13(2):200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    22. Corigliano A, Cacchione F, De Masi B, Riva C (2005) Meccanica 40:485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    23. Corigliano A, Domenella L, Espinosa HD, Zhu Y (2007) Sensor Lett. 5:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Masi B, Villa A, Corigliano A, Frangi A, Comi C, Marchi M (2004) In: Proceedings MEMS04, 25–29 January, MaastrichtGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    25. Ding JN, Meng YG, Wen SZ (2001) Mater. Sci. Eng. B 83:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    26. Espinosa HD, Prorok BC, Fischer M (2003) J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    27. Gardner JW, Varadan VK, Awadelkarim OO (2001) Microsensors MEMS and Smart Devices. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    28. Greek S, Ericson F, Johansson S, Schweitz JA (1997) Thin Solid Films 292:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    29. Hollman P, Alahelisten A, Olsson M, Hogmark S (1995) Thin Solid Films 270:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    30. Jadaan O, Nemeth N, Bagdahn J, Sharpe WN (2003) J. Mater. Sci. 38:4087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    31. Jayaraman S, Edwards RL, Hemker KJ (1998) Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 505:623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    32. Kahn H, Tayebi N, Ballarini R, Mullen RL, Heuer AH (2000) Sens. Actuators A 82:274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    33. Kahn H, Ballarini R, Bellante JJ, Heuer AH (2002) Science 298:1215Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    34. Kahn H, Ballarini R, Heuer AH (2004) Science 8:71Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    35. Kim JH, Yeon SC, Jeon YK, Kim JG, Kim YH (2002) Sens. Actuators A Phys. 101:338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    36. Knauss WG, Chasiotis I, Huang Y (2003) Mech. Mater. 35:217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    37. Kobrinsky M, Deutsch E, Senturia SD (1999) MEMS Microelectromech. Syst. 1:3Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    38. Kramer T, Paul O (2000) Sens. Actuators A 92:292Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    39. La Van DA, Tsuchiya T, Coles G, Knauss WG, Chasiotis I, Read D (2001) In: Muhlstein C, Brown SB (eds) Mechanical Properties of Structural Films, ASTM STP 1413. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    40. Li X, Bhushan B (1999) Thin Solid Films 144:210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    41. Lyshevski SE (2002) MEMS and NEMS. Systems, Devices and Structures. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    42. Madou MJ (2002) Fundamentals of Microfabrication. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    43. McCarty A, Chasiotis I (2007) Thin Solid Films 515:3267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    44. Muhlstein CL, Brown SB, Ritchie RO (2001) Sens. Actuators A 94:177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    45. Muhlstein CL, Stach EA, Ritchie RO (2002) Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9):1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    46. Muhlstein CL, Stach EA, Ritchie RO (2002) Acta Mater. 50:3579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    47. Muhlstein CL, Howe RT, Ritchie RO (2004) Mech. Mater. 36(1–2):13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    48. Oha CS, Lee HJ, Ko SG, Kim SW, Ahn HG (2005) Sens. Actuators A 117:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    49. Oostemberg PM, Senturia SD (1997) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    50. Prorok BC, Zhu Y, Espinosa HD, Guo Z, Bažant Z, Zhao Y, Yakobson BI (2004) In: Nalwa HS (ed) Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 5. American Scientific, Stevenson Ranch, CA, pp. 555–600Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    51. Senturia SD (2001) Microsystem Design. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    52. Sharpe Jr WN, Yuan B, Edwards RL (1997) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6(3):193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sharpe Jr WN, Vaidyanathan, Bin Yuan, Edwards RL (1997) In: Proceedings IEEE. The Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 26–30 January, Nagoya, Japan, pp. 424–429Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sharpe Jr WN, Brown JS, Johnson GC, Knauss WG (1998) In: Materials Research Society Proceedings, vol. 518, San Francisco, CA, pp. 57–65Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    55. Sharpe WN, Turner KT, Edwards RL (1999) J. Exp. Mech. 39:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    56. Sharpe WN (2002) In: The MEMS Handbook. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    57. Stanley P, Inanc EY (1984) In: Probabilistic methods in the mechanics of solids and structures, Proc. Symposium to the memory of W. Weibull, 19–21 June, Stockholm, Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    58. Sundarajan S, Bhushan B (2002) Sens. Actuators A Phys. 101:338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    59. Tabata O, Kawahata K, Sugiyama S, Igarashi I (1989) Sens. Actuators A 20:135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tai Y, Muller RS (1990) In: IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 11–14 February, Napa Valley, CA, pp. 147–152Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tsuchiya T, Sakata J, Taga Y (1997) In: Proceedings MRS Symposium, vol. 505, 1–5 December, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 285–290Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    62. Tsuchiya T, Tabata O, Sakata J, Taga Y (1998) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1):106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    63. Tsuchiya T, Shikida M, Sato K (2002) Sens. Actuators A Phys. 97–98:492Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    64. Tsuchiya T, Hirata M, Chiba N, Udo R, Yoshitomi Y, Ando T, Sato K, Takashima K, Higo Y, Saotome Y, Ogawa H, Ozaki K (2005) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(5):1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Villa A, De Masi B, Corigliano A, Frangi A, Comi C (2003) In: Bathe KJ (ed) Proceedings Second MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, vol. 1, June 2003, Boston, Elsevier, pp. 722–726Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    66. Weibull W (1951) J. Appl. Mech. 18:293Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    67. Yang J, Paul O (2002) Sens. Actuators A 89:1Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    68. Yi T, Li L, Kim CJ (2000) Sens. Actuators A 83:172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    69. Zhu Y, Corigliano A, Espinosa HD (2006) J. Micromech. Microeng. 16:242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    70. Ziebat V (1999) PhD Dissertation, ETH ZurichGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Corigliano
    • 1
  • Fabrizio Cacchione
    • 1
  • Sarah Zerbini
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Structural EngineeringPolitecnico di MilanoItaly
  2. 2.MEMS Product DivisionSTMicroelectronicsItaly

Personalised recommendations