Advertisement

Metrologies for Mechanical Response of Micro- and Nanoscale Systems

  • Robert R. Keller
  • Donna C. Hurley
  • David T. Read
  • Paul Rice
Chapter

12.1 Introduction

Thin films and nanomaterials lie at the heart of the burgeoning fields of nanoelectronics and nanotechnology, and the accurate measurement of their properties provides a basis for consistent manufacturing, fair trade, and reliable performance. Introduction of such materials into current and future technologies has opened an entirely new suite of both materials science and measurement science challenges – effects of dimensional scaling play a stronger role in the reliability of thin films and nanomaterials than in any other materials previously known. Surfaces and interfaces can dominate and change behaviors and properties known to develop in bulk materials of the same chemical composition. As a result, extrapolation of bulk responses to the nanoscale is often inaccurate.

This chapter describes metrologies developed by NIST scientists and collaborators for mechanical properties of dimensionally constrained materials; these approaches make use of methods inherently...

Keywords

Atomic Force Microscope Digital Image Correlation Contact Stiffness Fatigue Lifetime Total Strain Amplitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The contributions of current and former NIST coworkers (R. Geiss, M. Kopycinska-Müller, and E. Langlois) are gratefully acknowledged. We also value interactions with the research groups of J. Turner (Univ. Nebraska–Lincoln) and W. Arnold and U. Rabe (Fraunhofer Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Saarbrücken, Germany). Nanoindentation measurements for comparison to contact-resonance AFM results were provided by N. Jennett (National Physical Laboratory, UK), A. Rar (then at Univ. Tennessee–Knoxville), and D. Smith (NIST). We thank E. Arzt (Max-Planck-Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart, Germany), C. Volkert (Univ. Göttingen, Germany), and R. Mönig (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany) for fruitful collaborations on development of electrical test methods for thermal fatigue. We are grateful for support from the NIST Office of Microelectronics Programs.

References

  1. 1.
    1. Binning G, Quate CF, Gerber Ch (1986) Phys. Rev. Lett. 56:930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    2. Maivald P, Butt HJ, Gould SAC, Prater CB, Drake B, Gurley JA, Elings VB, Hansma PK (1991) Nanotechnology 2:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    3. Burnham NA, Kulik AJ, Gremaud G, Gallo PJ, Oulevey F (1996) J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14:794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    4. Troyon M, Wang Z, Pastre D, Lei HN, Hazotte A (1997) Nanotechnology 8:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    5. Rosa-Zeiser A, Weilandt E, Hild S, Marti O (1997) Meas. Sci. Technol. 8:1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    6. Butt HJ, Cappella B, Kappl M (2005) Surf. Sci. Rep. 59:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    7. Zhong Q, Inniss D, Kjoller K, Elings VB (1993) Surf. Sci. 290:L688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    8. Yamanaka K, Ogiso H, Kolosov OV (1994) Appl. Phys. Lett. 64:178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    9. Cuberes MT, Assender HE, Briggs GAD, Kolosov OV (2000) J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33:2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    10. Yamanaka K, Nakano S (1996) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35:3787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    11. Rabe U, Arnold W (1994) Appl. Phys. Lett. 64:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    12. Yamanaka K, Nakano S (1998) Appl. Phys. A 66:S31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    13. Crozier KB, Yaralioglu GG, Degertekin FL, Adams JD, Minne SC, Quate CF (2000) Appl. Phys. Lett. 76:195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    14. Hurley DC, Shen K, Jennett NM, Turner JA (2003) J. Appl. Phys. 94:2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    15. Rabe U (2006) In: Bushan B, Fuchs H (eds) Applied Scanning Probe Methods, vol. II. Springer, New York, chap. 2Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    16. Huey BD (2007) Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37:351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    17. Rabe U, Amelio S, Kester E, Scherer V, Hirsekorn S, Arnold W (2000) Ultrasonics 38:430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    18. Arinero R, Lévêque G (2003) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74:104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    19. Johnson KL (1985) Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    20. Vlassak JJ, Nix WD (1993) Philos. Mag. A 67:1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    21. Rabe U, Amelio S, Kopycinska M, Hirsekorn S, Kempf M, Göken M, Arnold W (2002) Surf. Interface Anal. 33:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    22. Kopycinska-Müller M, Geiss RH, Hurley DC (2006) Ultramicroscopy 106:466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    23. Yamanaka K, Tsuji T, Noguchi A, Koike T, Mihara T (2000) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71:2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    24. Prasad M, Kopycinska M, Rabe U, Arnold W (2002) Geophys. Res. Lett. 29:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    25. Stan G, Price W (2006) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77:103707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    26. Hurley DC, Kopycinska-Müller M, Kos AB, Geiss RH (2005) Meas. Sci. Technol. 16:2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    27. Rabe U, Amelio S, Kopycinska M, Hirsekorn S, Kempf M, Göken M, Arnold W (2002) Surf. Interface Anal. 33:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    28. Passeri D, Bettucci A, Germano M, Rossi M, Alippi A, Orlanducci S, Terranova ML, Ciavarella M (2005) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76:093904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    29. Zheng Y, Geer RE, Dovidenko K, Kopycinska-Müller M, Hurley DC (2006) J. Appl. Phys. 100:124308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    30. Stan G, Ciobanu CV, Parthangal PM, Cook RF (2007) Nano Lett. 7(12):3691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    31. Kopycinska-Müller M, Geiss RH, Müller J, Hurley DC (2005) Nanotechnology 16:703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    32. Hurley DC, Turner JA (2007) J. Appl. Phys. 102:033509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    33. Rabe U, Kopycinska M, Hirsekorn S, Muñoz Saldaña J, Schneider GA, Arnold W (2002) J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35:2621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    34. Tsuji T, Yamanaka K (2001) Nanotechnology 12:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    35. Yamanaka K, Maruyama Y, Tsuji T, Nakamoto K (2001) Appl. Phys. Lett. 78:1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    36. Passeri D, Bettucci A, Germano M, Rossi M, Alippi A, Sessa V, Fiori A, Tamburri E, Terranova ML (2006) Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:121910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    37. Kos AB, Hurley DC (2008) Meas. Sci. Technol. 19:015504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    38. Hurley DC, Kopycinska-Müller M, Langlois ED, Kos AB, Barbosa N (2006) Appl. Phys. Lett. 89:021911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    39. Sarioglu AF, Atalar A, Degertekin FL (2004) Appl. Phys. Lett. 84:5368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    40. Read DT, Dally JW (1993) J. Mater. Res. 8:1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    41. Cheng YW, Read DT, McColskey JD, Wright JE (2005) Thin Solid Films 484:426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    42. Read DT, Volinsky AA (2007) In: Suhir E, Lee YC, Wong CP (eds) Materials and Structures: Physics, Mechanics, Design, Reliability, Packaging: Volume 1. Materials Physics / Materials Mechanics. Springer, New York, chap. 4, pp. 135–180Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    43. Dieter G (1986) Mechanical Metallurgy. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    44. Hoffman RW (1989) In: Bravman JC, Nix WD, Barnett DM, Smith DA (eds) Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 130. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, pp. 295–306Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    45. Brotzen FR (1994) Int. Mater. Rev. 39:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    ASTM (2004) E8-04 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    ASTM (2004) E345-93(2002) Standard Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Foil. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    48. Hoffman RW (1966) In: Hass G, Thun RE (eds) Physics of Thin Films. Academic, New York, pp. 211–273Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    49. Menter JW, Pashley DW (2007) In: Neugebauer CA, Newkirk JB, Vermilyea DA (eds) Structure and Properties of Thin Films. Wiley, New York, pp. 111–148Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    50. Ding XY, Ko WH, Mansour JM (1990) Sens. Actuators A Phys. 23:866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    51. Ruud JA, Josell D, Spaepen F, Greer AL (1993) J. Mater. Res. 8:112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    52. Steinwall JE (1994) Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    53. Sharpe WN, Yuan B, Edwards RL (1997) J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6:193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    54. Read DT (1998) J. Test. Eval. 26:255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    55. Read DT, Dally JW (1995) J. Electron. Packaging 117:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    56. Read DT (1998) Int. J. Fatigue 20:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    57. Read DT (1998) Meas. Sci. Technol. 9:676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    58. Fox JC, Edwards RL, Sharpe WN (1999) Exp. Tech. 23:28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    59. Haque MA, Saif TA (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:6335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    60. Espinosa HD, Prorok BD, Peng B (2004) J. Mech. Phys. Solids 52:667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    61. Read DT, Cheng YW, Keller RR, McColskey JD (2001) Scr. Mater. 45:583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    62. Bruck HA, McNeill SR, Sutton MA, Peters WH (1989) Exp. Mech. 29:261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    63. Read DT, Cheng YW, Sutton MA, McNeill SR, Schreier H (2001) In: Shukla A, O’Brien EW, French RM, Ramsay KM (eds) Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, CT, pp. 365–368Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    64. Read DT, Cheng YW, Geiss R (2004) Microelectron. Eng. 75:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    65. Read DT, Cheng YW, McColskey JD (2002) In: Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, CT, pp. 64–67Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    66. Hurley DC, Geiss RH, Kopycinska-Muller M, Muller J, Read DT, Wright JE, Jennett NM, Maxwell AS (2005) J. Mater. Res. 20:1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    67. LaVan DA, Tsuchiya T, Coles G, Knauss WG, Chasiotis I, Read DT (2001) In: Muhlstein C, Brown SB (eds) ASTM STP 1413: Mechanical Properties of Structural Films. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohoken, PA, pp. 16–27Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    68. Espinosa HD, Prorok BC, Peng B (2004) J. Mech. Phys. Solids 52:667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    69. Haque MA, Saif TA (2002) In: Shukla A, French RM, Andonian A, Ramsey K (eds) SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, CT, pp. 134–138Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    70. Read DT, Cheng YW, McColskey JD, Keller RR (2002) In: Ozkan CS, Freund LB, Cammarata RC, Gao H (eds) Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 695. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 263–268Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    71. Read DT, Geiss R, Ramsey J, Scherban T, Xu G, Blaine J, Miner B, Emery RD (2003) In: Bahr DF (ed) Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 778. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 93–98Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    72. Yeung B, Lytle W, Sarihan V, Read DT, Guo Y (2002) Solid State Technol. 45(6):125Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    73. Sharpe WN, Jackson KM, Coles G, Eby MA, Edwards RL (2001) In: Muhlstein C, Brown SB (eds) ASTM STP 1413: Mechanical Properties of Structural Films. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohoken, PA, pp. 229–247Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    74. Read DT, Keller RR, Barbosa N, Geiss R (2007) Metall. Mater. Trans. A 38A:2242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    75. Philofsky E, Ravi K, Hall E, Black J (1971) In: Proc. 9th Annual Reliability Physics Symposium. IEEE, New York, pp. 120–128Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    76. Mönig R, Keller RR, Volkert CA (2004) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75:4997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    77. Ho PS, Kwok T (1989) Rep. Prog. Phys. 52:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    78. Ting LM, May JS, Hunter WR, McPherson JW (1993) In: Proc. 31st Annual Reliability Physics Symposium. IEEE, New York, pp. 311–316Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    79. Keller RR, Barbosa III N, Geiss RH, Read DT (2007) Key Eng. Mater. 345:1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    80. Manson SS, Halford GR (2006) Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials. ASM International, Materials Park, OH, p. 64Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    81. Barbosa III N, Keller RR, Read DT, Geiss RH, Vinci RP (2007) Metall. Mater. Trans. 38A:2160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    82. Muralidharan U, Manson SS (1988) J. Eng. Mater. Technol. Trans. ASME 110:55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    83. Suresh S (1998) Fatigue of Materials, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    84. Nachtigall AJ (1975) Properties of Materials for Liquefied Natural Gas Tankage, ASTM STP 579. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 378–396Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    85. Morrow JD (1968) Fatigue Design Handbook – Advances in Engineering. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, pp. 21–29Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    86. Keller RR, Geiss RH, Barbosa III N, Slifka AJ, Read DT (2007) Metall. Mater. Trans. 38A:2263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    87. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf D, Wilsdorf HGF (1963) Electron Microscopy and Strength of Crystals. Interscience, New York, pp. 575–604Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    88. Beck PA, Sperry PR (1950) J. Appl. Phys. 21:150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    89. Battaile CC, Buchheit TE, Holm EA, Wellman GW, Neilsen MK (1999) In: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 538. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 267–273Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    90. Haque MA, Saif MTA (2003) Acta Mater. 51:3053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    91. Greer JR, Oliver WC, Nix WD (2005) Acta Mater. 53:1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    92. Rubio-Bollinger G, Bahn SR, Agrait N, Jacobsen KW, Vieira S (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:026101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    93. Uchic MD, Dimiduk DM, Florando JM, Nix WD (2004) Science 305:986CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert R. Keller
    • 1
  • Donna C. Hurley
    • 1
  • David T. Read
    • 1
  • Paul Rice
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyMaterials Reliability DivisionBoulder

Personalised recommendations