Reactivity of Bimetallic Nanoclusters Toward the Oxygen Reduction in Acid Medium

  • Perla B. Balbuena
  • Yixuan Wang
  • Eduardo J. Lamas
  • Sergio R. Calvo
  • Luis A. Agapito
  • Jorge M. Seminario
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 113)


The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt and Pt-alloys, the slowest of the two electrode reactions of low temperature fuel cells, has been studied for a long time in an effort to fully understand its mechanism and therefore be able to develop improved catalyst materials which may significantly contribute to enhance the overall fuel cell efficiency [1, 2].

The standard potential for the four-electron reduction of oxygen in acid medium is 1.23 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. However, a negative overpotential – for the ORR – of about 0.3–0.5 V is needed to start the reaction on a Pt electrode, Pt being the best catalyst known so far for this reaction [3]. This overpotential is usually attributed both to kinetic and mass transport limitations at the cathode electrode. Nanoscale proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrocatalysts have been used since the 1960s [1]; however they are in most cases the result of lucky trial and error experimentation, and there is...


Proton Transfer Oxygen Reduction Reaction Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity Hollow Site Bimetallic Cluster 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences (Grant DE-FG02-04ER15619), and of the Army Research Office (DURIP grant W911N F-04-1-0098).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Perla B. Balbuena
    • 1
  • Yixuan Wang
  • Eduardo J. Lamas
  • Sergio R. Calvo
  • Luis A. Agapito
  • Jorge M. Seminario
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTexas A&M University

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