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Breeching Epithelial Barriers – Physiochemical Factors Impacting Nanomaterial Translocation and Toxicity

  • Lisa DeLouise
  • Luke Mortensen
  • Alison Elder
Chapter
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)

Abstract

With the surging nanotechnology industry, the likelihood of intentional consumer and unintended worker-related skin and lung exposures to various types of nanomaterials is assured. From existing literature, there is clear evidence that some nanomaterials can passively breech epithelial barriers. For skin, mechanical flexing can facilitate penetration of large micron-sized particles and, for both skin and lung, the health status will affect barrier function. Nanoparticle toxicology is, however, an emerging field and inconsistencies in the published literature exist. Inconsistencies should be anticipated as there is currently no standardized set of tests by which nanoparticle toxicity can be determined. Therefore, the question of nanomaterial toxicity resulting from unintended epithelial permeation remains open. In vitro cytotoxicity studies clearly indicate that nanomaterials are toxic to skin and lung cells under certain conditions. The relevance of these results is difficult to extrapolate, as there is a presumption of epithelial permeation. This chapter discusses what is known and what is not known about physiochemical factors impacting nano material translocation and toxicity.

Keywords

Olfactory Bulb Stratum Corneum Hair Follicle Skin Permeation Franz Diffusion Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Dermatology, Biomedical Engineering and Environmental MedicineUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

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