Cytotoxicity of Photoactive Nanoparticles

  • Yuhui Jin
  • Xiaojun Zhao
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)


This chapter describes the cytotoxicity of photoactive materials (specifically, quantum dots, noble metal nanoparticles (including gold and silver), and fluorescent silica nanoparticles). A thorough representation of in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies is presented. Since the toxicity on photoactive nanomaterials described in this chapter has developed rapidly and has attracted a great amount of interest, it is expected that many novel developments and applications of photoactive nanomaterials will ensue in the near future.


Silver Nanoparticles Fluorescent Silica High Cytotoxic Effect Coating Ligand Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Ag NPs

Silver nanoparticles

Au NPs

Gold nanoparticles


Bovine serum albumin


Cadmium selenide


Cadmium telluride


Effective concentration




Lethal concentration


Mitochondrial membrane potential


3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide


Mercaptopropionic acid


Mercapto-undecanoic acid






Polyethylene glycol


Quantum dots


Reactive oxygen species

Silica NPs

Silica nanoparticles






Zinc sulfide.



This work was partially supported by Society for Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh Starter Grant; New Faculty Scholar Awards and Faculty Research Seed Money Awards at the University of North Dakota; and Startup fund from NSF EPSCoR, EPA EPSCoR and BRIN at the University of North Dakota.


  1. Braydich-Stolle L, Hussain S, Schlager JJ, Hofmann MC (2005) In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in Mammalian germline stem cells. Toxicol Sci 88:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cao YC, Jin R, Mirkin CA (2002) Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection. Science 297:1536–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao YC, Jin R, Nam JM, Thaxton CS, Mirkin CA (2003) Raman dye-labeled nanoparticle probes for proteins. J Am Chem Soc 125:14676–14677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao YW, Jin R, Mirkin CA (2001) DNA-modified core-shell Ag/Au nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 123:7961–7962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang J,Wu H, Chen H, Ling Y, TanW(2005) Oriented assembly of Au nanorods using biorecognition system. Chem Commun 8:1092–1094Google Scholar
  6. Derfus AM, Chan WCW, Bhatia SN (2004) Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots. Nano Lett 4:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dubertret B, Skourides P, Norris DJ, Noireaux V, Brivanlou AH, Libchaber A (2002) In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles. Science 298:1759–1762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goodman CM, McCusker CD, Yilmaz T, Rotello VM (2004) Toxicity of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cationic and anionic side chains. Bioconjug Chem 15:897–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Green M, Howman E (2005) Semiconductor quantum dots and free radical induced DNA nicking. Chem Commun: 121–123Google Scholar
  10. He XX, Wang K, Tan W, Liu B, Lin X, He C, Li D, Huang S, Li J (2003) Bioconjugated nanoparticles for DNA protection from cleavage. J Am Chem Soc 125:7168–7169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoshino A, Fujioka K, Oku T, Suga M, Sasaki YF, Ohta T, Yasuhara M, Suzuki K, Yamamoto K (2004) Physicochemical properties and cellular toxicity of nanocrystal quantum dots depend on their surface modification. Nano Lett 4:2163–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hussain SM, Hess KL, Gearhart JM, Geiss KT, Schlager JJ (2005) In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells. Toxicol In Vitro 19:975–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ito S, Yoshikawa H, Masuhara H (2001) Optical patterning and photochemical fixation of polymer nanoparticles on glass substrates. Appl Phys Lett 78:4046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kirchner C, Liedl T, Kudera S, Pellegrino T, Munoz JA, Gaub HE, Stolzle S, Fertig N, Parak WJ (2005) Cytotoxicity of colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles. Nano Lett 5:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kwon SS, Nam YS, Lee JS, Ku BS, Han SH, Lee JY, Chang IS (2002) Preparation and characterization of coenzyme Q10-loaded PMMA nanoparticles by a new emulsification process based on microfluidization. Colloids and Surfaces, A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 210:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lagerholm CB, Wang M, Ernst LA, Ly DH, Liu H, Bruchez MP, Waggoner AS (2004) Multicolor coding of cells with cationic peptide coated quantum dots. Nano Lett 4:2019–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li D, He XX, Wang K, He C (2002) Detecting on toxicity of series silica shell inorganic nanoparticles to cells. J Hunan Univ 29:1–6Google Scholar
  18. Liang S, Pierce D, Amiot C, Zhao X (2005) Photoactive nanomaterials for sensing trace analytes in biological samples. Synth React Inorg Met-Org and Nano Met Chem 35:661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lovri´c J, Bazzi HS, Cuie Y, Fortin GR,Winnik FM, Maysinger D (2005) Differences in subcellular distribution and toxicity of green and red emitting CdTe quantum dots. J Mol Med 83:377–385Google Scholar
  20. Luo D, Han E, Belcheva N, SaltzmanWM(2004) A self-assembled, modular DNA delivery system mediated by silica nanoparticles. J Control Release 95:333–341Google Scholar
  21. Michalet X, Pinaud FF, Bentolila LA, Tsay JM, Doose S, Li JJ, Sundaresan G, Wu AM, Gambhir SS, Weiss S (2005) Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics. Science 307:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL, Mucic RC, Storhoff JJ (1996) A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. Nature 382:607–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Santra S, Yang H, Holloway PH, Stanley JT, Mericle RA (2005) Synthesis of water-dispersible fluorescent, radio-opaque, and paramagnetic CdS:Mn/ZnS quantum dots: a multifunctional probe for bioimaging. J Am Chem Soc 127:1656–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shiohara A, Hoshino A, Hanaki K, Suzuki K, Yamamoto K (2004) On the cyto-toxicity caused by quantum dots. Microbiol Immunol 48:669–675Google Scholar
  25. Wang L, Yang C, Tan W (2005) Dual-luminophore-doped silica nanoparticles for multiplexed signaling. Nano Lett 5:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yi DK, Selvan ST, Lee SS, Papaefthymiou GC, Kundaliya D, Ying JY (2005) Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc 127:4990–4991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhao X, Dytocio RT, Tan W (2003a) Ultrasensitive DNA detection using highly fluorescent bioconjugated nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 125:11474–11475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhao X, Hilliard LR, Mechery SJ, Wang Y, Bagwe RP, Jin S, Tan W (2004) A rapid bioassay for single bacterial cell quantitation using bioconjugated nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:15027–15032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhao X, Tapec-Dytioco R, Wang K, Tan W (2003b) Collection of trace amounts of DNA/mRNA molecules using genomagnetic nanocapturers. Anal Chem 75:3476–3483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhou C, Zhao Y, Jao T, Winnik MA, Wu C (2002) Photoinduced aggregation of polymer nanoparticles in a dilute nonaqueous dispersion. J Phys Chem B 106:1889–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations