Advertisement

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children and Adolescents with Malignant Disease

  • Mitchell S. Cairo
  • Thomas G. Gross
Chapter
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 144)

Introduction

The origins of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children and adolescents with cancer can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original reports of Thomas et al. [ 1, 2]. Thomas et al. initially reported the results of syngeneic transplants in twins with leukemia who had been conditioned with superlethal doses of total body radiation (TBI) [ 1, 2]. Since that groundbreaking observation over 50 years ago, additional sources of stem cells have been investigated in children and adolescents with a variety of malignant conditions including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched sibling or related allogeneic donors, matched unrelated adult donors, sibling and unrelated cord blood donors, haploidentical donors, and autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood. Currently, there are a variety of malignant conditions that occur in children and adolescents that may benefit from HSCT during different stages of their treatment and can be subdivided into hematopoietic...

Keywords

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Erin Morris, RN, for her expert assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Thomas ED, Blume KG. Historical markers in the development of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 1999;5:341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas ED, Lochte HL Jr, Lu WC, Ferrebee JW. Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 1957;257:491–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Satwani P, Harrison L, Morris E, Del Toro G, Cairo MS. Reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults and children with malignant and nonmalignant diseases: end of the beginning and future challenges. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:403–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Champlin R, Khouri I, Shimoni A, et al. Harnessing graft-versus-malignancy: non-myeloablative preparative regimens for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation, an evolving strategy for adoptive immunotherapy. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:18–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Butturini A, Bortin MM, Gale RP. Graft-versus-leukemia following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1987;2:233–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drobyski WR, Keever CA, Roth MS, et al. Salvage immunotherapy using donor leukocyte infusions as treatment for relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: efficacy and toxicity of a defined T-cell dose. Blood 1993;82:2310–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fefer A, Sullivan KM, Weiden P, et al. Graft versus leukemia effect in man: the relapse rate of acute leukemia is lower after allogeneic than after syngeneic marrow transplantation. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;244:401–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Horowitz MM, Gale RP, Sondel PM, et al. Graft-versus-leukemia reactions after bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1990;75:555–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolb HJ, Schattenberg A, Goldman JM, et al. Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients. Blood 1995;86:2041–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sullivan KM, Weiden PL, Storb R, et al. Influence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease on relapse and survival after bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings as treatment of acute and chronic leukemia. Blood 1989;73:1720–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Del Toro G, Satwani P, Harrison L, et al. A pilot study of reduced intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation from unrelated cord blood and matched family donors in children and adolescent recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;33:613–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duerst R, Jacobsohn D, Tse W, Kletzel M. Efficacy of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with FLU-BU-ATG and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for pediatric ALL. Blood 2004 (abstract);104:2314.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gomez-Almaguer D, Ruiz-Arguelles GJ, Tarin-Arzaga Ldel C, et al. Reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents: the Mexican experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003;9:157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roman E, Cooney E, Harrison L, et al. Preliminary results of the safety of immunotherapy with gemtuzumab ozogamicin following reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplant in children with CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(19 Pt 2):7164s–70s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Satwani P, Morris E, Bradley M, Bhatia M, van de Ven C, Cairo M. Reduced intensity and non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant diseases. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50(1):1–8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pui CH, Evans WE. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:166–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balduzzi A, Valsecchi MG, Uderzo C, et al. Chemotherapy versus allogeneic transplantation for very-high-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first complete remission: comparison by genetic randomisation in an international prospective study. Lancet 2005;366:635–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bordigoni P, Vernant JP, Souillet G, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: a cooperative study of the Groupe d’Etude de la Greffe de Moelle Osseuse. J Clin Oncol. 1989;7:747–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Satwani P, Sather H, Ozkaynak F, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first remission for children with ultra-high-risk features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a children’s oncology group study report. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:218–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Uderzo C, Valsecchi MG, Balduzzi A, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation versus chemotherapy in high-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission. Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) and the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Br J Haematol. 1997;96:387–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wheeler KA, Richards SM, Bailey CC, et al. Bone marrow transplantation versus chemotherapy in the treatment of very high-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: results from Medical Research Council UKALL X and XI. Blood 2000;96:2412–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arico M, Valsecchi MG, Camitta B, et al. Outcome of treatment in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:998–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schrauder A, Reiter A, Gadner H, et al. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy alone in high-risk childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from ALL-BFM 90 and 95. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:5742–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pui CH, Gaynon PS, Boyett JM, et al. Outcome of treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with rearrangements of the 11q23 chromosomal region. Lancet 2002;359:1909–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacobsohn DA, Hewlett B, Morgan E, Tse W, Duerst RE, Kletzel M. Favorable outcome for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:999–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kosaka Y, Koh K, Kinukawa N, et al. Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements: outcome following intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2004;104:3527–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dopfer R, Henze G, Bender-Gotze C, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission after intensive primary and relapse therapy according to the BFM- and CoALL-protocols: results of the German Cooperative Study. Blood 1991;78:2780–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barrett AJ, Horowitz MM, Pollock BH, et al. Bone marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings as compared with chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1253–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Uderzo C, Valsecchi MG, Bacigalupo A, et al. Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy: ten-year experience of the Italian Bone Marrow Transplantation Group and the Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology Association. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:352–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wheeler K, Richards S, Bailey C, Chessells J. Comparison of bone marrow transplant and chemotherapy for relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: the MRC UKALL X experience. Medical Research Council Working Party on Childhood Leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 1998;101:94–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boulad F, Steinherz P, Reyes B, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation versus chemotherapy for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission: a single-institution study. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gaynon PS, Harris RE, Altman AJ, et al. Bone marrow transplantation versus prolonged intensive chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and an initial bone marrow relapse within 12 months of the completion of primary therapy: Children’s Oncology Group study CCG-1941. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3150–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gaynon PS. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and relapse. Br J Haematol. 2005;131:579–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Borgmann A, von Stackelberg A, Hartmann R, et al. Unrelated donor stem cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission: a matched-pair analysis. Blood 2003;101:3835–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roy A, Cargill A, Love S, et al. Outcome after first relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia—lessons from the United Kingdom R2 trial. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:67–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bradley MB, Cairo MS. Cord blood immunology and stem cell transplantation. Hum immunol. 2005;66:431–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cairo MS, Wagner JE. Placental and/or umbilical cord blood: an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Blood 1997;90:4665–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eapen M, Rubinstein P, Zhang MJ, et al. Comparable long-term survival after unrelated and HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantations for acute leukemia in children younger than 18 months. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rocha V, Cornish J, Sievers EL, et al. Comparison of outcomes of unrelated bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in children with acute leukemia. Blood 2001;97:2962–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Styczynski J, Cheung YK, Garvin J, et al. Outcomes of unrelated cord blood transplantation in pediatric recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;34:129–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Afify Z, Hunt L, Green A, Guttridge M, Cornish J, Oakhill A. Factors affecting the outcome of stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in third remission. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;35:1041–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bunin N, Carston M, Wall D, et al. Unrelated marrow transplantation for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Blood 2002;99:3151–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lang P, Handgretinger R, Niethammer D, et al. Transplantation of highly purified CD34+ progenitor cells from unrelated donors in pediatric leukemia. Blood 2003;101:1630–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Klingebiel T, Handgretinger R, Lang P, Bader P, Niethammer D. Haploidentical transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Blood Rev. 2004;18:181–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Houtenbos I, Bracho F, Davenport V, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a novel combined approach consisting of ex vivo marrow purging, modulation of multi-drug resistance, induction of autograft vs leukemia effect, and post-transplant immuno- and chemotherapy (PTIC). Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:145–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ramsay N, LeBien T, Nesbit M, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second or subsequent remission: results of bone marrow treated with monoclonal antibodies BA-1, BA-2, and BA-3 plus complement. Blood 1985;66:508–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ribera JM, Ortega JJ, Oriol A, et al. Comparison of intensive chemotherapy, allogeneic, or autologous stem-cell transplantation as postremission treatment for children with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: PETHEMA ALL-93 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brochstein JA, Kernan NA, Groshen S, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in children with acute leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1618–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coccia PF, Strandjord SE, Warkentin PI, et al. High-dose cytosine arabinoside and fractionated total-body irradiation: an improved preparative regimen for bone marrow transplantation of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Blood 1988;71:888–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bunin N, Aplenc R, Kamani N, Shaw K, Cnaan A, Simms S. Randomized trial of busulfan vs total body irradiation containing conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32:543–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Davies SM, Ramsay NK, Klein JP, et al. Comparison of preparative regimens in transplants for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:340–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hahn T, Wall D, Camitta B, et al. The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: an evidence-based review. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:823–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lie SO, Abrahamsson J, Clausen N, et al. Treatment stratification based on initial in vivo response in acute myeloid leukaemia in children without Down’s syndrome: results of NOPHO-AML trials. Br J Haematol. 2003;122:217–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nesbit ME Jr, Buckley JD, Feig SA, et al. Chemotherapy for induction of remission of childhood acute myeloid leukemia followed by marrow transplantation or multiagent chemotherapy: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12:127–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pession A, Rondelli R, Basso G, et al. Treatment and long-term results in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP AML protocols. Leukemia 2005;19:2043–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ravindranath Y, Yeager AM, Chang MN, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation versus intensive consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia in childhood. Pediatric Oncology Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1428–34.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stevens RF, Hann IM, Wheatley K, Gray RG. Marked improvements in outcome with chemotherapy alone in paediatric acute myeloid leukemia: results of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council’s 10th AML trial. MRC Childhood Leukaemia Working Party. Br J Haematol. 1998;101:130–40.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Woods WG, Neudorf S, Gold S, et al. A comparison of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and aggressive chemotherapy in children with acute myeloid leukemia in remission. Blood 2001;97:56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wells RJ, Adams MT, Alonzo TA, et al. Mitoxantrone and cytarabine induction, high-dose cytarabine, and etoposide intensification for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia: Children’s Cancer Group Study 2951. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:2940–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nemecek ER, Gooley TA, Woolfrey AE, Carpenter PA, Matthews DC, Sanders JE. Outcome of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with advanced acute myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;34:799–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bourquin JP, Thornley I, Neuberg D, et al. Favorable outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;34:795–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Godder K, Eapen M, Laver JH, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first or second complete remission: a prognostic factor analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3798–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Michel G, Rocha V, Chevret S, et al. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a Eurocord Group analysis. Blood 2003;102:4290–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wall DA, Carter SL, Kernan NA, et al. Busulfan/melphalan/antithymocyte globulin followed by unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for treatment of infant leukemia and leukemia in young children: the Cord Blood Transplantation study (COBLT) experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:637–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bunin N, Aplenc R, Leahey A, et al. Outcomes of transplantation with partial T-cell depletion of matched or mismatched unrelated or partially matched related donor bone marrow in children and adolescents with leukemias. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;35:151–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Alonzo TA, Wells RJ, Woods WG, et al. Postremission therapy for children with acute myeloid leukemia: the children’s cancer group experience in the transplant era. Leukemia 2005;19:965–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lapillonne H, Renneville A, Auvrignon A, et al. High WT1 expression after induction therapy predicts high risk of relapse and death in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1507–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Neudorf S, Sanders J, Kobrinsky N, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myelocytic leukemia in first remission demonstrates a role for graft versus leukemia in the maintenance of disease-free survival. Blood 2004;103:3655–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Woods WG, Kobrinsky N, Buckley J, et al. Intensively timed induction therapy followed by autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a Children’s Cancer Group pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1448–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scott BL, Sandmaier BM, Storer B, et al. Myeloablative vs nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia with multilineage dysplasia: a retrospective analysis. Leukemia 2006;20:128–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Roman E, Cooney E, Militano O, et al. Reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation followed by targeted consolidation immunotherapy with gemtuzumab ozogamicin in children and adolescents with CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007 (abstract);13:30–1.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ruggeri L, Capanni M, Urbani E, et al. Effectiveness of donor natural killer cell alloreactivity in mismatched hematopoietic transplants. Science 2002;295:2097–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Oliansky DM, Rizzo JD, Aplan PD, et al. The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia in children: an evidence-based review. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldman JM, Apperley JF, Jones L, et al. Bone marrow transplant for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:202–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Druker BJ, Guilhot F, O’Brien SG, et al. Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2408–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cwynarski K, Roberts IA, Iacobelli S, et al. Stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in children. Blood 2003;102:1224–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Goldman JM, Druker BJ. Chronic myeloid leukemia: current treatment options. Blood 2001;98:2039–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gamis AS, Haake R, McGlave P, Ramsay NK. Unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in children. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:834–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Balduzzi A, Gooley T, Anasetti C, et al. Unrelated donor marrow transplantation in children. Blood 1995;86:3247–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dini G, Rondelli R, Miano M, et al. Unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in children: experience of eight European Countries. The EBMT Paediatric Diseases Working Party. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996;18 Suppl 2:80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaeda J, O’Shea D, Szydlo RM, et al. Serial measurement of BCR-ABL transcripts in the peripheral blood after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: an attempt to define patients who may not require further therapy. Blood 2006;107:4171–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Olavarria E, Kanfer E, Szydlo R, et al. Early detection of BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction predicts outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 2001;97:1560–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dazzi F, Szydlo RM, Cross NC, et al. Durability of responses following donor lymphocyte infusions for patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 2000;96:2712–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cairo MS, Bradley MB. Lymphoma. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2007. p. 2123–6.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hudson MM, Donaldson SS. Treatment of pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Semin Hematol. 1999;36:313–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al. Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:745–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ng AK, Bernardo MV, Weller E, et al. Second malignancy after Hodgkin disease treated with radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy: long-term risks and risk factors. Blood 2002;100:1989–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cairo MS, Raetz E, Perkins SL. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children. In: Kufe DW, Bast RC, Hait WN, et al., editors. Cancer medicine, 7th ed. Ontario: BC Decker Inc.; 2005. p. 1962–76.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cairo MS, Sposto R, Hoover-Regan M, et al. Childhood and adolescent large-cell lymphoma (LCL): a review of the Children’s Cancer Group experience. Am J Hematol. 2003;72:53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cairo MS, Sposto R, Perkins SL, et al. Burkitt’s and Burkitt-like lymphoma in children and adolescents: a review of the Children’s Cancer Group experience. Br J Haematol. 2003;120:660–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Loiseau HA, Hartmann O, Valteau D, et al. High-dose chemotherapy containing busulfan followed by bone marrow transplantation in 24 children with refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1991;8:465–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gordon BG, Warkentin PI, Weisenburger DD, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents. Blood 1992;80:2938–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Philip T, Hartmann O, Pinkerton R, et al. Curability of relapsed childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma after intensive first line therapy: a report from the Societe Francaise d’Oncologie Pediatrique. Blood 1993;81:2003–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ladenstein R, Pearce R, Hartmann O, Patte C, Goldstone T, Philip T. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children with poor-risk Burkitt’s lymphoma: a report from the European Lymphoma Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry. Blood 1997;90:2921–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kobrinsky NL, Sposto R, Shah NR, et al. Outcomes of treatment of children and adolescents with recurrent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s disease with dexamethasone, etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, and l-asparaginase, maintenance chemotherapy, and transplantation: Children’s Cancer Group Study CCG-5912. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2390–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Levine JE, Harris RE, Loberiza FR Jr, et al. A comparison of allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoblastic lymphoma. Blood 2003;101:2476–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Woessmann W, Peters C, Lenhard M, et al. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma of children and adolescents—a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster group report. Br J Haematol. 2006;133:176–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Williams CD, Goldstone AH, Pearce R, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for pediatric Hodgkin’s disease: a case-matched comparison with adult patients by the European Bone Marrow Transplant Group Lymphoma Registry. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:2243–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Baker KS, Gordon BG, Gross TG, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s disease in children and adolescents. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:825–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stoneham S, Ashley S, Pinkerton CR, Wallace WH, Shankar AG. Outcome after autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory childhood Hodgkin disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26:740–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lieskovsky YE, Donaldson SS, Torres MA, et al. High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for recurrent or refractory pediatric Hodgkin’s disease: results and prognostic indices. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4532–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Harris RE, Termuelin A, Cairo MS, et al. Safety and efficacy of CBV followed by autologous PBSC transplant in children with lymphoma after failed induction or first relapse—a Children’s Oncology Group Study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 (abstract);46:843.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bradley B, Cooney E, George D, et al. A pilot study of myeloalative (MA) autologous stem cell (AutoSCT) followed by reduced intensity (RI) allogeneic transplantation (AlloSCT) in children and adolescents with relapsed/refractory Hodkin disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NL). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 (abstract);46:852.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Peggs KS, Hunter A, Chopra R, et al. Clinical evidence of a graft-versus-Hodgkin’s-lymphoma effect after reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation. Lancet 2005;365:1934–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Carella AM, Cavaliere M, Lerma E, et al. Autografting followed by nonmyeloablative immunosuppressive chemotherapy and allogeneic peripheral-blood hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation as treatment of resistant Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:3918–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gutman JA, Bearman SI, Nieto Y, et al. Autologous transplantation followed closely by reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation as consolidative immunotherapy in advanced lymphoma patients: a feasibility study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36:443–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Matthay K. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for neuroblastoma. In: Blume K, Forman S, Appelbaum F, editors. Thomas’ hematopoietic cell transplantation, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2004. p. 1333–44.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children’s Cancer Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1165–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Grupp SA, Stern JW, Bunin N, et al. Rapid-sequence tandem transplant for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2000;35:696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kletzel M, Katzenstein HM, Haut PR, et al. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with triple-tandem high-dose therapy and stem-cell rescue: results of the Chicago Pilot II Study. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:2284–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kletzel M, Cohn S, Morgan E, Kalapurakal J, Jacobsohn D, Duerst R. The Chicago pilot #2 for high risk (HR) neuroblastoma (NBL) patients (pts): a 4-year update. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 (abstract);47:462.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Matthay KK, DeSantes K, Hasegawa B, et al. Phase I dose escalation of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with autologous bone marrow support in refractory neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:229–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yanik GA, Levine JE, Matthay KK, et al. Pilot study of iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine in combination with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell support for the treatment of neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:2142–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ladenstein R, Lasset C, Hartmann O, et al. Comparison of auto versus allografting as consolidation of primary treatments in advanced neuroblastoma over one year of age at diagnosis: report from the European Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1994;14:37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Matthay KK, Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, et al. Allogeneic versus autologous purged bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12:2382–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rill DR, Santana VM, Roberts WM, et al. Direct demonstration that autologous bone marrow transplantation for solid tumors can return a multiplicity of tumorigenic cells. Blood 1994;84:380–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mattano LA Jr, Moss TJ, Emerson SG. Sensitive detection of rare circulating neuroblastoma cells by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cancer Res 1992;52:4701–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kreissman SG, Villablanca JG, Diller L, et al. Response and toxicity to a dose-intensive multi-agent chemotherapy induction regimen for high risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB): a Children’s Oncology Group (COG A3973) study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 (abstract);25:9505.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Cheung IY, et al. Anti-G(D2) antibody treatment of minimal residual stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3053–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Yamashiro DJ, Lee A, Bhatia M, et al. Feasibility of autologous stem cell transplant followed by reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for high risk neuroblastoma: a single institution pilot study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007 (abstract);13:68.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Graham ML, Herndon JE II, Casey JR, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent and high-risk pediatric brain tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:1814–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Heideman RL, Douglass EC, Krance RA, et al. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow rescue followed by interstitial and external-beam radiotherapy in newly diagnosed pediatric malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1458–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Finlay JL, Goldman S, Wong MC, et al. Pilot study of high-dose thiotepa and etoposide with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and young adults with recurrent CNS tumors. The Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:2495–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Strother D, Ashley D, Kellie SJ, et al. Feasibility of four consecutive high-dose chemotherapy cycles with stem-cell rescue for patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor after craniospinal radiotherapy: results of a collaborative study. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2696–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dunkel IJ, Boyett JM, Yates A, et al. High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with autologous stem-cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma. Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:222–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Broniscer A, Nicolaides TP, Dunkel IJ, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in the treatment of patients with recurrent non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004;42:261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mason WP, Grovas A, Halpern S, et al. Intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow rescue for young children with newly diagnosed malignant brain tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:210–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Fouladi M, Hunt DL, Pollack IF, et al. Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children’s Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945. Cancer 2003;98:1243–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jakacki RI, Siffert J, Jamison C, Velasquez L, Allen JC. Dose-intensive, time-compressed procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine (PCV) with peripheral blood stem cell support and concurrent radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol. 1999;44:77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cohen BH, Zeltzer PM, Boyett JM, et al. Prognostic factors and treatment results for supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors in children using radiation and chemotherapy: a Children’s Cancer Group randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:1687–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Evans AE, Jenkin RD, Sposto R, et al. The treatment of medulloblastoma. Results of a prospective randomized trial of radiation therapy with and without CCNU, vincristine, and prednisone. J Neurosurg. 1990;72:572–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, et al. Postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in children less than three years of age with malignant brain tumors. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1725–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Zacharoulis S, Levy A, Chi SN, et al. Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Miser JS, Krailo MD, Tarbell NJ, et al. Treatment of metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone: evaluation of combination ifosfamide and etoposide—a Children’s Cancer Group and Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2873–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Paulussen M, Ahrens S, Burdach S, et al. Primary metastatic (stage IV) Ewing tumor: survival analysis of 171 patients from the EICESS studies. European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Studies. Ann Oncol. 1998;9:275–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bacci G, Longhi A, Ferrari S, Mercuri M, Versari M, Bertoni F. Prognostic factors in non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma tumor of bone: an analysis of 579 patients treated at a single institution with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1972 and 1998. Acta Oncol. 2006;45:469–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Burdach S, Meyer-Bahlburg A, Laws HJ, et al. High-dose therapy for patients with primary multifocal and early relapsed Ewing’s tumors: results of two consecutive regimens assessing the role of total-body irradiation. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:3072–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ladenstein R, Lasset C, Pinkerton R, et al. Impact of megatherapy in children with high-risk Ewing’s tumours in complete remission: a report from the EBMT Solid Tumour Registry. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995;15:697–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Burke MJ, Walterhouse DO, Jacobsohn DA, Duerst RE, Kletzel M. Tandem high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue as consolidation therapy for patients with high-risk Ewing family tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:196–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hawkins D, Barnett T, Bensinger W, Gooley T, Sanders J. Busulfan, melphalan, and thiotepa with or without total marrow irradiation with hematopoietic stem cell rescue for poor-risk Ewing-Sarcoma-Family tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2000;34:328–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Barker LM, Pendergrass TW, Sanders JE, Hawkins DS. Survival after recurrence of Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4354–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dagher R, Long LM, Read EJ, et al. Pilot trial of tumor-specific peptide vaccination and continuous infusion interleukin-2 in patients with recurrent Ewing sarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: an inter-institute NIH study. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38:158–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Burdach S, Nurnberger W, Laws HJ, et al. Myeloablative therapy, stem cell rescue and gene transfer in advanced Ewing tumors. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996;18 Suppl 1:S67–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Landenstein R, Peters C, Zoubek A, et al. The role of megatherapy (MGT) followed by stem cell rescue (SCR) in high risk Ewing’s tumors (ET): 11 years single center experience. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1996 (abstract);24:237.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Carli M, Colombatti R, Oberlin O, et al. High-dose melphalan with autologous stem-cell rescue in metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:2796–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Koscielniak E, Klingebiel TH, Peters C, et al. Do patients with metastatic and recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma benefit from high-dose therapy with hematopoietic rescue? Report of the German/Austrian Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Group. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997;19:227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sauerbrey A, Bielack S, Kempf-Bielack B, Zoubek A, Paulussen M, Zintl F. High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as salvage therapy for relapsed osteosarcoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:933–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Breitfeld PP, Lyden E, Raney RB, et al. Ifosfamide and etoposide are superior to vincristine and melphalan for pediatric metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when administered with irradiation and combination chemotherapy: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:225–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pappo AS, Anderson JR, Crist WM, et al. Survival after relapse in children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:3487–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Boulad F, Kernan NA, LaQuaglia MP, et al. High-dose induction chemoradiotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation as consolidation therapy in rhabdomyosarcoma, extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:1697–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Weigel BJ, Breitfeld PP, Hawkins D, Crist WM, Baker KS. Role of high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue in the treatment of metastatic or recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:272–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Schabel FM Jr, Griswold DP Jr, Corbett TH, Laster WR Jr. Increasing the therapeutic response rates to anticancer drugs by applying the basic principles of pharmacology. Cancer 1984;54 Suppl 6:1160–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Valteau-Couanet D, Kalifa C, Benhamou E, et al. Phase II study of high-dose thiotepa (HDT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) support in children with metastatic osteosarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1996 (abstract);24:239.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Anderson PM, Wiseman GA, Dispenzieri A, et al. High-dose samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate: low toxicity of skeletal irradiation in patients with osteosarcoma and bone metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:189–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Grundy P, Breslow N, Green DM, Sharples K, Evans A, D’Angio GJ. Prognostic factors for children with recurrent Wilms’ tumor: results from the Second and Third National Wilms’ Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol. 1989;7:638–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Campbell AD, Cohn SL, Reynolds M, et al. Treatment of relapsed Wilms’ tumor with high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue: the experience at Children’s Memorial Hospital. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2885–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Garaventa A, Hartmann O, Bernard JL, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for pediatric Wilms’ tumor: the experience of the European Bone Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumor Registry. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1994;22:11–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pein F, Michon J, Valteau-Couanet D, et al. High-dose melphalan, etoposide, and carboplatin followed by autologous stem-cell rescue in pediatric high-risk recurrent Wilms’ tumor: a French Society of Pediatric Oncology study. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Abu-Ghosh AM, Krailo MD, Goldman SC, et al. Ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide in children with poor-risk relapsed Wilms’ tumor: a Children’s Cancer Group report. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:460–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dome JS, Liu T, Krasin M, et al. Improved survival for patients with recurrent Wilms tumor: the experience at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24:192–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Nguyen QA, Villablanca JG, Siegel SE, Crockett DM. Esthesioneuroblastoma in the pediatric age-group: the role of chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;37:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Devalck C, Tempels D, Ferster A, et al. Long-term disease-free survival in a child with refractory metastatic malignant germ cell tumor treated by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescues. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1994;22:208–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Schmaltz C, Sauter S, Opitz O, et al. Pleuro-pulmonary blastoma: a case report and review of the literature. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1995;25:479–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Namouni F, Doz F, Tanguy ML, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by a haematopoietic stem cell rescue in patients with high-risk retinoblastoma: a SFOP and SFGM study. Eur J Cancer 1997;33:2368–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kretschmar CS, Colbach C, Bhan I, Crombleholme TM. Desmoplastic small cell tumor: a report of three cases and a review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1996;18:293–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Trahair TN, Vowels MR, Johnston K, et al. Long-term outcomes in children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:741–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sanders JE. Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplantation. In: Blume KG, Forman S, Appelbaum FR, editors. Thomas’ hematopoietic cell transplantation, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2004. p. 929–43.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Stabler B, Siegel PT, Clopper RR, Stoppani CE, Compton PG, Underwood LE. Behavior change after growth hormone treatment of children with short stature. J Pediatr. 1998;133:366–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Vance ML, Mauras N. Growth hormone therapy in adults and children. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1206–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Dahllof G, Rozell B, Forsberg CM, Borgstrom B. Histologic changes in dental morphology induced by high dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;77:56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Baker KS, DeFor TE, Burns LJ, Ramsay NK, Neglia JP, Robison LL. New malignancies after blood or marrow stem-cell transplantation in children and adults: incidence and risk factors. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1352–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations