Role of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  • Martin S. Tallman
  • Vikram Mathews
  • John F. DiPersio
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 144)


Significant advances have been made in the management of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML—a.k.a. acute myelogenous leukemia) and myelodysplastic syndromes over the over the past several decades. However, most of these advances have been limited to young adults (<55 years) in whom the average 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate in AML has improved from 11% to 37% between 1970 and 2000 [1]. Over a similar period in patients who were older than 55 years at the time of diagnosis, the 5-year DFS for AML has changed marginally (6–12%) [1]. AML is a heterogeneous disease, thus options of therapy in first complete remission (CR1) depend on additional prognostic factors. With current induction regimens, 70–80% of patients with newly diagnosed AML achieve a complete remission; however, this is short-lived without consolidation therapy and most, if not all, of these patients will relapse and succumb to their illness [2, 3]. Options for post-remission induction therapy for AML...


Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Conditioning Regimen Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Donor Lymphocyte Infusion Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Appelbaum FR, Rowe JM, Radich J, Dick JE. Acute myeloid leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2001;62–86.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mayer RJ, Davis RB, Schiffer CA, et al. Intensive postremission chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer and Leukemia Group B. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:896–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giles FJ, Keating A, Goldstone AH, Avivi I, Willman CL, Kantarjian HM. Acute myeloid leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2002;73–110.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slovak ML, Kopecky KJ, Cassileth PA, et al. Karyotypic analysis predicts outcome of preremission and postremission therapy in adult acute myeloid leukemia: a Southwest Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Blood 2000;96:4075–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mathews V, DiPersio JF. Stem cell transplantation in acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission: what are the options? Curr Hematol Rep. 2004;3:235–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakrabarti S, Marks DI. Should we T cell deplete sibling grafts for acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission? Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32:1039–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Platzbecker U, Ehninger G, Schmitz N, Bornhauser M. Reduced-intensity conditioning followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in myeloid diseases. Ann Hematol. 2003;82:463–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ruggeri L, Capanni M, Urbani E, et al. Effectiveness of donor natural killer cell alloreactivity in mismatched hematopoietic transplants. Science 2002;295:2097–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giebel S, Locatelli F, Lamparelli T, et al. Survival advantage with KIR ligand incompatibility in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors. Blood 2003;102:814–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bacigalupo A, Sormani MP, Lamparelli T, et al. Reducing transplant-related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 2004;89:1238–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowen D, Culligan D, Jowitt S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of adult myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. 2003;120:187–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aul C, Germing U, Gattermann N, Minning H. Increasing incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes: real or fictitious? Leuk Res. 1998;22:93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. 1982;51:189–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, et al. The World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November, 1997. Ann Oncol. 1999;10:1419–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cassileth PA, Harrington DP, Appelbaum FR, et al. Chemotherapy compared with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the management of acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1649–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lowenberg B, Griffin JD, Tallman MS. Acute myeloid leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2003;82–101.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Appelbaum FR, Kopecky KJ, Tallman MS, et al. The clinical spectrum of adult acute myeloid leukaemia associated with core binding factor translocations. Br J Haematol. 2006;135:165–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Byrd JC, Dodge RK, Carroll A, et al. Patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22) and acute myeloid leukemia have superior failure-free and overall survival when repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are administered. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:3767–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schlenk RF, Corbacioglu A, Krauter J, Bullinger L, Morgan M, Spath D, et al. Gene mutations as predictive markers for post remission therapy in younger adults with normal karyotype AML. Blood 2006;108:Abstract#4.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stirewalt DL, Radich JP. The role of FLT3 in haematopoietic malignancies. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:650–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kottaridis PD, Gale RE, Frew ME, et al. The presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adds important prognostic information to cytogenetic risk group and response to the first cycle of chemotherapy: analysis of 854 patients from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML 10 and 12 trials. Blood 2001;98:1752–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baldus CD, Tanner SM, Ruppert AS, et al. BAALC expression predicts clinical outcome of de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. Blood 2003;102:1613–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karakas T, Miething CC, Maurer U, et al. The coexpression of the apoptosis-related genes bcl-2 and wt1 in predicting survival in adult acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 2002;16:846–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani S, Erpelinck C, van Putten WLJ, et al. High EVI1 expression predicts poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia: a study of 319 de novo AML patients. Blood 2003;101:837–45.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dohner K, Tobis K, Ulrich R, et al. Prognostic significance of partial tandem duplications of the MLL gene in adult patients 16 to 60 years old with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: a study of the Acute Myeloid Leukemia Study Group Ulm. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:3254–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tourneur L, Delluc S, Levy V, et al. Absence or low expression of fas-associated protein with death domain in acute myeloid leukemia cells predicts resistance to chemotherapy and poor outcome. Cancer Res. 2004;64:8101–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Frohling S, Schlenk RF, Stolze I, et al. CEBPA mutations in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: prognostic relevance and analysis of cooperating mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:624–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu Q, Dey AL, Yang Y, et al. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and not receptor 2, is an independent prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Cancer 2004;100:1884–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Falini B, Nicoletti I, Martelli MF, Mecucci C. Acute myeloid leukemia carrying cytoplasmic/mutated nucleophosmin (NPMc + AML): biologic and clinical features. Blood 2007;109:874–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zittoun RA, Mandelli F, Willemze R, et al. Autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation compared with intensive chemotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell’Adulto (GIMEMA) Leukemia Cooperative Groups. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Harousseau JL, Cahn JY, Pignon B, et al. Comparison of autologous bone marrow transplantation and intensive chemotherapy as postremission therapy in adult acute myeloid leukemia. The Groupe Ouest Est Leucemies Aigues Myeloblastiques (GOELAM). Blood 1997;90:2978–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burnett AK, Goldstone AH, Stevens RM, et al. Randomised comparison of addition of autologous bone-marrow transplantation to intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission: results of MRC AML 10 trial. UK Medical Research Council Adult and Children’s Leukaemia Working Parties. Lancet 1998;351:700–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nathan PC, Sung L, Crump M, Beyene J. Consolidation therapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation in adults with acute myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wheatley K. Current controversies: which patients with acute myeloid leukaemia should receive a bone marrow transplantation?—a statistician’s view. Br J Haematol. 2002;118:351–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schlenk RF, Benner A, Krauter J, et al. Individual patient data-based meta-analysis of patients aged 16 to 60 years with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: a survey of the German Acute Myeloid Leukemia Intergroup. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3741–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lashkari A, Lowe T, Collisson E, et al. Long-term outcome of autologous transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells as postremission management of patients > or = 60 years with acute myelogenous leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:466–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomas X, Suciu S, Rio B, et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation after complete remission and first consolidation in acute myeloid leukemia patients aged 61-70 years: results of the prospective EORTC-GIMEMA AML-13 study. Haematologica 2007;92:389–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herr AL, Labopin M, Blaise D, et al. HLA-identical sibling allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning compared to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for elderly patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 2007;21:129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chantry AD, Snowden JA, Craddock C, et al. Long-term outcomes of myeloablation and autologous transplantation of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in second remission: a British Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:1310–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lazarus HM, Perez WS, Klein JP, et al. Autotransplantation versus HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a retrospective analysis from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Br J Haematol. 2006;132:755–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Santos GW, Tutschka PJ, Brookmeyer R, et al. Marrow transplantation for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia after treatment with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:1347–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tutschka PJ, Copeland EA, Klein JP. Bone marrow transplantation for leukemia following a new busulfan and cyclophosphamide regimen. Blood 1987;70:1382–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferrara F, Palmieri S, De Simone M, et al. High-dose idarubicin and busulphan as conditioning to autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2005;128:234–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gorin NC, Aegerter P, Auvert B, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelocytic leukemia in first remission: a European survey of the role of marrow purging. Blood 1990;75:1606–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Miller CB, Rowlings PA, Zhang MJ, et al. The effect of graft purging with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide in autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:1336–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wierenga PK, Setroikromo R, Kamps G, Kampinga HH, Vellenga E. Differences in heat sensitivity between normal and acute myeloid leukemic stem cells: feasibility of hyperthermic purging of leukemic cells from autologous stem cell grafts. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:421–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Feller N, van der Pol MA, Waaijman T, et al. Immunologic purging of autologous peripheral blood stem cell products based on CD34 and CD133 expression can be effectively and safely applied in half of the acute myeloid leukemia patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4793–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sirohi B, Powles, R, Singhal S, et al. The impact of consolidation chemotherapy on the outcome of autotransplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: single center experience of 118 adult patients. Blood 2001;98:859a.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cassileth P, Lee S, Litzow M, et al. Intensified induction chemotherapy in adult acute myeloid leukemia followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: an eastern cooperative oncology group trial (E4995). Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tallman MS, Perez WS, Lazarus HM, et al. Pretransplantation consolidation chemotherapy decreases leukemia relapse after autologous blood and bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:204–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Korbling M, Fliedner TM, Holle R, et al. Autologous blood stem cell (ABSCT) versus purged bone marrow transplantation (pABMT) in standard risk AML: influence of source and cell composition of the autograft on hemopoietic reconstitution and disease-free survival. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1991;7:343–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    de Witte T, Keating S, Suciu S, et al. A randomized comparison of the value of autologous BMT versus autologous PBSCT for patients with AML in first CR in the AML 10 trial of the EORTC, LCG and GIMEMMA. Blood 2001;98:859a.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Keating S, Suciu S, de Witte T, et al. The stem cell mobilizing capacity of patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission correlates with relapse risk: results of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-10 trial. Leukemia 2003;17:60–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Milone G, Indelicato F, Tornello A, et al. ABMT in CR1; Importance of infused cell dose for engraftment and LFS differs after unpurged or purged bone marrow Blood 2003;102:3681a.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brenner MK, Rill DR, Moen RC, et al. Gene marking and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;716:204–14; discussion 214–205, 225–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Burnett AK, Wheatley K, Goldstone AH, et al. The value of allogeneic bone marrow transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia at differing risk of relapse: results of the UK MRC AML 10 trial. Br J Haematol. 2002;118:385–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gale RP, Horowitz MM, Rees JK, et al. Chemotherapy versus transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia in second remission. Leukemia 1996;10:13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Linker CA, Damon LE, Ries CA, Navarro WA, Case D, Wolf JL. Autologous stem cell transplantation for advanced acute myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Suciu S, Zittoun R, Mandelli F, et al. Allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation according to cytogenetic features in AML patients in first remission: results of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-10 trial. Blood 2001;98:481a.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cornelissen JJ, van Putten WL, Verdonck LF, et al. Results of a HOVON/SAKK donor versus no-donor analysis of myeloablative HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation in first remission acute myeloid leukemia in young and middle-aged adults: benefits for whom? Blood 2007;109:3658–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ferry C, Socie G. Busulfan-cyclophosphamide versus total body irradiation-cyclophosphamide as preparative regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: what have we learned? Exp Hematol. 2003;31:1182–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clift RA, Buckner CD, Appelbaum FR, et al. Allogeneic marrow transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: a randomized trial of two irradiation regimens. Blood 1990;76:1867–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Alyea EP, Kim HT, Ho V, et al. Comparative outcome of nonmyeloablative and myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients older than 50 years of age. Blood 2005;105:1810–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tallman MS, Rowlings PA, Milone G, et al. Effect of postremission chemotherapy before human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia in first complete remission. Blood 2000;96:1254–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cahn JY, Labopin M, Sierra J, et al. No impact of high-dose cytarabine on the outcome of patients transplanted for acute myeloblastic leukaemia in first remission. Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Br J Haematol. 2000;110:308–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Robin M, Guardiola P, Dombret H, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukaemia in remission: risk factors for long-term morbidity and mortality. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;31:877–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Champlin RE, Schmitz N, Horowitz MM, et al. Blood stem cells compared with bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic cells for allogeneic transplantation. IBMTR Histocompatibility and Stem Cell Sources Working Committee and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Blood 2000;95:3702–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Russell JA, Larratt L, Brown C, et al. Allogeneic blood stem cell and bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplasia: influence of stem cell source on outcome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999;24:1177–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gorin NC, Labopin M, Rocha V, et al. Marrow versus peripheral blood for geno-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myelocytic leukemia: influence of dose and stem cell source shows better outcome with rich marrow. Blood 2003;102:3043–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bensinger WI, Martin PJ, Storer B, et al. Transplantation of bone marrow as compared with peripheral-blood cells from HLA-identical relatives in patients with hematologic cancers. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:175–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kolb HJ, Schattenberg A, Goldman JM, et al. Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients. Blood 1995;86:2041–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Collins RH Jr, Shpilberg O, Drobyski WR, et al. Donor leukocyte infusions in 140 patients with relapsed malignancy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:433–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schmid C, Labopin M, Nagler A, et al. Donor lymphocyte infusion in the treatment of first hematological relapse after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in adults with acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective risk factors analysis and comparison with other strategies by the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:4938–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sierra J, Storer B, Hansen JA, et al. Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: an update of the Seattle experience. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;26:397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Aversa F, Terenzi A, Felicini R, et al. Haploidentical stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2002;76 Suppl 1:165–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davies SM, Ruggieri L, DeFor T, et al. Evaluation of KIR ligand incompatibility in mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic transplants. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor. Blood 2002;100:3825–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bethge WA, Faul C, Bornhauser M, et al. Haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in adults using CD3/CD19 depletion and reduced intensity conditioning: an update. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;40:13–9.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barker JN, Wagner JE. Umbilical-cord blood transplantation for the treatment of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:526–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ooi J, Iseki T, Takahashi S, et al. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 2004;103:489–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, et al. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 1997;89:2079–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Appelbaum FR, Anderson J. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome: outcomes analysis according to IPSS score. Leukemia 1998;12 Suppl 1:S25–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Deeg HJ, Storer B, Slattery JT, et al. Conditioning with targeted busulfan and cyclophosphamide for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2002;100:1201–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Greenberg P, Bishop M, Deeg J. Practise guidelines for myelodysplastic syndromes. Oncology 1998;12:53–80.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giralt S. Bone marrow transplant in myelodysplastic syndromes: new technologies, same questions. Curr Hematol Rep. 2004;3:165–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    de Witte T, Hermans J, Vossen J, et al. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with myelo-dysplastic syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukaemias: a report on behalf of the Chronic Leukaemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Br J Haematol. 2000;110:620–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sierra J, Perez WS, Rozman C, et al. Bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings as treatment for myelodysplasia. Blood 2002;100:1997–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sutton L, Chastang C, Ribaud P, et al. Factors influencing outcome in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a long-term study of 71 patients Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle. Blood 1996;88:358–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Anderson JE, Anasetti C, Appelbaum FR, et al. Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for myelodysplasia (MDS) and MDS-related acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol 1996;93:59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Castro-Malaspina H, Harris RE, Gajewski J, et al. Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: outcome analysis in 510 transplants facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program. Blood 2002;99:1943–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    de Witte T, Pikkemaat F, Hermans J, et al. Genotypically nonidentical related donors for transplantation of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: comparison with unrelated donor transplantation and autologous stem cell transplantation. Leukemia 2001;15:1878–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nevill TJ, Fung HC, Shepherd JD, et al. Cytogenetic abnormalities in primary myelodysplastic syndrome are highly predictive of outcome after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1998;92:1910–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Runde V, de Witte T, Arnold R, et al. Bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings as first-line treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: early transplantation is associated with improved outcome. Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1998;21:255–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cutler CS, Lee SJ, Greenberg P, et al. A decision analysis of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for the myelodysplastic syndromes: delayed transplantation for low risk myelodysplasia is associated with improved outcome. Blood 2004;104:579–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Anderson JE, Gooley TA, Schoch G, et al. Stem cell transplantation for secondary acute myeloid leukemia: evaluation of transplantation as initial therapy or following induction chemotherapy. Blood 1997;89:2578–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Copeland EA, Penza SL, Elder PJ, et al. Analysis of prognostic factors for allogeneic marrow transplantation following busulfan and cyclophosphamide in myelodysplastic syndrome and after leukemic transformation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;25:1219–22.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Appelbaum FR, Barrall J, Storb R, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for patients with myelodysplasia. Pretreatment variables and outcome. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:590–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Anderson JE, Appelbaum FR, Schoch G, et al. Allogeneic marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome with advanced disease morphology: a phase II study of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and total-body irradiation and analysis of prognostic factors. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:220–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Slattery JT, Risler LJ. Therapeutic monitoring of busulfan in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ther Drug Monit. 1998;20:543–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Andersson BS, Gajewski J, Donato M, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (BMT) for AML and MDS following i.v. busulfan and cyclophosphamide (i.v. BuCy). Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;25 Suppl 2:S35–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Giralt S, Thall PF, Khouri I, et al. Melphalan and purine analog-containing preparative regimens: reduced-intensity conditioning for patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation. Blood 2001;97:631–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Shimoni A, Giralt S, Khouri I, Champlin R. Allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia: non-myeloablative preparative regimens and induction of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Curr Oncol Rep. 2000;2:132–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Parker JE, Shafi T, Pagliuca A, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the myelodysplastic syndromes: interim results of outcome following reduced-intensity conditioning compared with standard preparative regimens. Br J Haematol. 2002;119:144–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Martino R, van Biezen A, Iacobelli S, et al. Reduced intensity conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplants from HLA identical siblings in adults with MDS: a comparison with standard myeloablative regimens. A study of the EBMT Chronic Leukemia Working Party (EBMT-CLWP). Blood 2003;102:642 (abstract).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    de Lima M, Anagnostopoulos A, Munsell M, et al. Non-ablative versus reduced intensity conditioning regimens in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Dose is relevant for long-term disease control after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2004;104:865–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stuart JS, Cao TM, Sandmaier BM, et al. Efficacy of non-myeloablative allogeneic transplant for patients with MDS and myeloproliferative disorders. Blood 2003;102:644 (abstract).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Martino R, Iacobelli S, Brand R, et al. Retrospective comparison of reduced-intensity conditioning and conventional high-dose conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using HLA-identical sibling donors in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 2006;108:836–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stuart J, Sandmeir, BM. Efficacy of non-myeloablative allogeneic transplants for patients with MDS and myeloproliferative disorders. Blood 2003;102:644ab.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Guardiola P, Runde V, Bacigalupo A, et al. Retrospective comparison of bone marrow and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells for allogeneic stem cell transplantation using HLA identical sibling donors in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 2002;99:4370–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    del Canizo MC, Martinez C, Conde E, et al. Peripheral blood is safer than bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic progenitors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who receive an allogeneic transplantation. Results from the Spanish registry. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32:987–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ooi J, Iseki T, Takahashi S, et al. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for adult patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2003;101:4711–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ooi J, Iseki T, Nagayama H, et al. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome-related secondary acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2001;114:834–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin S. Tallman
  • Vikram Mathews
  • John F. DiPersio
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Oncology, Campus Box 8007Washington University Medical SchoolSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations