External Anogenital Premalignant and Malignant Disease

  • Karen L. Gibbon
  • Arucha L. Ekeowa-Anderson
  • Irene M. Leigh
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 146)

The external anogenital area comprises the anus, perianal skin, and the adjacent external genitalia including the vulva and vaginal introitus in the female, and the penis and scrotum in the male. Immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients (OTR) are prone to viral infections, and have an increased incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated premalignant and malignant neoplasms, which specifically target the anogenital tract. The cumulative risk of the development of a solid-organ neoplasm is 5–6% [1–3]. Nearly all of these neoplasms occur on a background of premalignant disease (i.e., carcinoma in situ). The most common presentation of anogenital disease in OTR is condyloma accuminata or genital viral warts and these are regarded as a marker of immunosuppression in this group.


Intraepithelial Neoplasia Anal Cancer Penile Cancer Vulvar Cancer Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen L. Gibbon
    • 1
  • Arucha L. Ekeowa-Anderson
    • 2
  • Irene M. Leigh
    • 3
  1. 1.Barts and the London NHS TrustLondonUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.The Royal London Hospital,WhitechapelLondonUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.College of Medicine, Dentistry and NursingUniversity of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical SchoolUnited Kingdom

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