Need for refrigerant mixtures

  • Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam
Part of the International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


Cryogenic refrigerators and liquefiers were operated with pure fluids for much of the last century. The importance of using a mixture of refrigerants appears to have been first proposed in 1936 by Podbielniak [69], but was implemented in practice in the 1960s in large-scale natural gas liquefaction after the pioneering work of Kleemenko [50]. The use of mixtures in refrigeration applications was pioneered in the former Soviet Union [4, 17]. In this chapter, the methods for overcoming the low exergy efficiency of refrigeration and liquefaction systems operating with pure fluids using refrigerant mixtures are discussed.


Heat Exchanger Exergy Efficiency Exergy Loss Bubble Point Expansion Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [69]
    Podbielniak, W. (1936). Art of refrigeration. U.S. Patent 2,041,725.Google Scholar
  2. [50]
    Kleemenko, A. P. (1959). One flow cascade cycle. In Proc. of the 10th International Congress of Refrigeration, volume 1, pages 34–39.Google Scholar
  3. [4]
    Alexeev, A. and Klipping, G. (2005). Cryogenics in Russia. In Proc. of the Twentieth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC 20): Beijing, China, 11–14 May 2004, pages 1–8. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. [17]
    Boiarskii, M.,Brodyanskii,V. M., and Longsworth, R. C. (1998b). Retrospective of mixed-refrigerant technology and modern status of cryocoolers based on onestage, oil-lubricated compressors. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 43:1701–1708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [93]
    Venkatarathnam, G., Mokashi, G., and Murthy, S. S. (1996). Occurrence of pinch points in the condensers and evaporators for zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Int. J. Refrigeration, 19:361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [94]
    Venkatarathnam, G. and Murthy, S. S. (1999). Effect of mixture composition on the formation of pinch points in condensers and evaporators for zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Int. J. Refrigeration, 22:205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [63]
    NIST (2000). NIST-12 Thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids Database: Version 5.0.Google Scholar
  8. [51]
    Knapp, H., Döring, R., Oellrich, L., Plöcker, U., and Prausnitz, J. M. (1981). Vapor-Liquid equilibria for mixtures of low boiling substances, volume VI. Dechema Chemistry Data Series.Google Scholar
  9. [34]
    Fedele, L., Bobboa, S., Camporese, R., and Stryjek, R. (2004). VLLE measurements and correlation for the pentafluoroethane (R125) + n-butane (R600) system. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 222–223:283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [55]
    Lavrenchenko, G. K., Trotsenko, A. B., Ruvinsky, G. Y., Tabachnik, E. U., Balkin, B. N., and Balavachenko, B. U. (1983). Investigation of phase equilibria in binary mixtures of refrigerants with limits of mixing. Kholod. Tekh. Tekhnolog., 37:38–44.Google Scholar
  11. [7]
    Alfeev, V. N., Brodyanskii, V., Yagodin, V., Nikolsky, V., and Ivantsov, A. (1973). Refrigerant for a cryogenic throttling unit. U.K. Patent 1,336,892.Google Scholar
  12. [27]
    Brodyanskii, V. M., Gramov, E. A., Grezin, A. K., Yagodin, V. M., Nikol’skii, V. A., and Tashchina, A. G. (1971). Efficient throttling cryogenic refrigerators which operate on mixtures. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 8(12):1057–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Barron, R. F. (1983). Cryogenic Systems. Oxford Press, second edition.Google Scholar
  14. [28]
    Brodyanskii, V. M., Sorin, M. V., and Goff, P. L. (1994). The Efficiency of Industrial Processes: Exergy Analysis and Optimization. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  15. [60]
    Missimer, D. J. (1997). Refrigerant conversion of auto-refrigerating cascade (arc) systems. Int. J. Refrigeration, 20:201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [9]
    ASHRAE (1998). Chapter 39, ASHRAE Handbook-Refrigeration. ASHRAE, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations