Need for refrigerant mixtures

Part of the International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


Cryogenic refrigerators and liquefiers were operated with pure fluids for much of the last century. The importance of using a mixture of refrigerants appears to have been first proposed in 1936 by Podbielniak [69], but was implemented in practice in the 1960s in large-scale natural gas liquefaction after the pioneering work of Kleemenko [50]. The use of mixtures in refrigeration applications was pioneered in the former Soviet Union [4, 17]. In this chapter, the methods for overcoming the low exergy efficiency of refrigeration and liquefaction systems operating with pure fluids using refrigerant mixtures are discussed.


Heat Exchanger Exergy Efficiency Exergy Loss Bubble Point Expansion Valve 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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