Advertisement

Comorbidity: Depression and Substance Abuse

  • María Elena Medina-Mora
  • Estela Rojas Guiot
  • Guilherme Borges
  • Lucía Vázquez-Pérez
  • Clara Fleiz Bautista
  • Tania Real Quintanar
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Children's and Families' Lives book series (IICL, volume 8)

Personal Journey: María Elena Medina-Mora

I was finishing a degree in psychology and uncertain as to the area in which to specialize when an instructor encouraged me to intern at the Mexican Center of Studies in Drug Dependence. This newly created center was responsible for developing programs to address the increase of drug use in Mexico and develop policy recommendations. This experience enabled me to work on the frontier of science between drug policy and drug treatment.

Over time, the center was incorporated into the Mexican National Institute of Psychiatry and became a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Center. This resulted in my working with the Addiction Research Center of Canada and the Alcohol Research Group in California, in particular with Robin Room, with whom I have kept a fruitful and ongoing collaboration. With Robin’s encouragement, I embraced a social epidemiological approach. Presently, I am interested in studying drug behavior from a system’s perspective...

Keywords

Substance Abuse Anxiety Disorder Latin American Country Substance Misuse Latino Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aguilera-Guzmán, R. M. (2001). Ausencia paterna y migración internacional: Estresores y compensadores relacionados con la salud mental de adolescentes tempranos. Tesis no publicada para obtener el grado de Maestría en Ciencias. Programa de Maestría y Doctorado en Ciencias de la Salud. Facultad de Medicina. Distrito Federal, México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  2. Alderete, E., Vega, W., Kolody, B., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (1999). Depressive symptomatology: Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors among Mexican migrant farmworkers in California. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(4), 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araya, R. (1994). Women’s drinking and society. Addiction 89, 954–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M. E., Breslau, J., & Aguilar Gaxiola, S. (2007). The effect of migration to the United States on substance use disorders among returned migrants and families of migrants. American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breslau, J., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Borges, G., Castilla-Puentes, R. C., Kendler, K. S., Medina-Mora, M.-E., Su, M., & Kessler, R. C. (2007a) Mental disorders among English-Speaking Mexican immigrants to the US compared to a national sample of Mexicans. Psychiatry Research, 151(1–2), 115–122.Google Scholar
  6. Breslau, J., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Borges, G., Kendler, K., Maxwell, S., & Kesler, R. (2007b) Risk of psychiatric disorder among immigrants and their US born descendants. Evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(3), 189–195.Google Scholar
  7. Caetano, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (1986). Immigration, acculturation and alcohol use: A comparison between people of Mexican descent in Mexico and the U. S.. Berkeley, CA: Medical Research Institute of San Francisco, Alcohol Research Group.Google Scholar
  8. Caetano, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (1988). Acculturation and drinking among people of Mexican descent in Mexico and the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 462–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Caraveo, A. J., Colmenares, B. E., & Saldivar, H. G. (1999). Morbilidad psiquiátrica en la Ciudad de México: Prevalencia y comorbilidad durante la vida. Salud Mental. Número Especial, 22, 62–67.Google Scholar
  10. Caraveo, J., Martinez, N. A., Rivera, E., & Polo, A. (1997). Prevalencia en la vida de episodios depresivos y utilización de servicios especializados. Salud Mental, 20(Suppl), 15–23.Google Scholar
  11. Cherpitel, C. J., & Rosovsky, H. (1990). Alcohol consumption and casualties: A comparison of emergency room population in the United States and Mexico. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(4), 319–326.Google Scholar
  12. Desjarlais, R. L., Good, B., Einsberg, B., & Kleinman, A. (1995). World mental health problems and priorities in low-income countries. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1998). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT Statistic database. In World Health Organization (WHO). Global status report on alcohol. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
  14. Felix-Ortiz, M., Villatoro, J., Medina-Mora, M. E., & Newcomb, M. D. (2001). Adolescent drug use in Mexico and among Mexican American adolescents in the United States: Environmental influences and individual characteristics. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(1), 27–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia, Z. R. (2003). Migración, remesas y desarrollo local. Doctorado en Estudios del Desarrollo. Zacatecas, México: Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas.Google Scholar
  16. Ghodse, H. (2002). Drugs and addictive behaviour. A guide to treatment (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gilbert, M. J., & Cervantes, R. C. (1986). Patterns and practices of alcohol use among Mexican Americans: a comprehensive review. Hispanic Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 8, 1–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glassman, A. H., Helzer, J. E., Covey, L. S., Cottler, L. B., Stetner, F., Tipp, J. E., & Johnson, J. (1990). Smoking, smoking cessation and major depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 1546–1549; cited in World Health Organization (2004). Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  19. Hanis, C. L., Hewett-Emmett, D., Bertin, T. K., & Schull, W. J. (1991). Origins of US Hispanics: Implications for diabetes. Diabetes Care, 14:618–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hitsman, B., Pingitore, R., Spring, B., Mahableshwarkar, A., Mizes, J. S., Segraves, K. A., et al. (1999). Antidepressant pharmacotherapy helps some cigarette smokers more than others.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(4), 547–554; cited in World Health Organization (2004). Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  21. Hubbard, J. R., & Martin, P. R. (2001). Substance abuse in the mentally and physically disabled: an overview. In J. R. Hubbard, & P. R. Martin (Eds.), Substance abuse in the mentally and physically disabled. (pp. 1–10). New York: Marcel Dekker.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., MacLean, C. J., Health, A. C., Eaves, L. J., & Kessler, R. C. (1993). Smoking and major depression: a causal analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Andarde, L., Bijil, R., Borges, G., Caraveo, A. J., DeWit, D. J., Kolody, B., Merikangas, K. R., Molnar, B. E., Vega, W. A., Walters, E. E., Wittchen, H., & Ustun, B. (2001). Mental-substance comorbidities in the ICPE surveys (English). Psychiatria Fennica, 32(suppl 2), 62–79.Google Scholar
  24. Kessler, R.C., Chiu, W.T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K.R., & Walters, E.E. (2005).Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry. 62(6), 617–627. Erratum in: Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(7), 709.Google Scholar
  25. Kessler, R. C, McGonable, K. A, Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshelman, S., Wittchen, H., & Kendler, K. (1994). Lifetime and 12 month prevalence of DSM III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lozano, A. F. (2003). Discurso oficial, remesas y desarrollo en México In: J. Arango., F. Lozano., S. Vertovec., M. Moctezuma., & S. Castles (Eds.), Migración y desarrollo (pp. 23–31). Red Internacional Migracióny Desarrollo y Doctorado en Estudios del Desarrollo. Zacatecas, México: Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas.Google Scholar
  27. Madrigal, E. (1998). Latin America: The handbook. Alcohol and emerging markets. Patterns, problems and responses (pp 223–261) In M. Grant (Ed.), Alcohol in society, Washington DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies.Google Scholar
  28. Marin, H., Escobar, J. I., & Vega, W. A. (2006). Mental illness in Hispanics: A review of the literature. Focus: The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, 4(1), 21–37.Google Scholar
  29. Massey, D., Alarcon, R., Durand, J., & Gonzalez, H. (1991). Los ausentes: El proceso social de la migración internacional en el occidente de México. Distrito Federal, México: Alianza Editorial.Google Scholar
  30. Medina-Mora, M. E., Berenzon, S., López, E. K., Solís, L., Caballero, M. A., & González, J. (1997). Uso de los servicios de salud por los pacientes con trastornos mentales: resultados de una encuesta en una población de escasos recursos. Salud Mental, 20(suppl) 32–38.Google Scholar
  31. Medina-Mora, M. E., Borges, G., Lara, C., Benjet, C., Blanco, J., Fleiz, C., Villatoro, J., Rojas, E., Zambrano, J. (2005). Prevalence, service use, and demographic correlates of 12 month DSM IV psychiatric disorders in Mexico: Results from the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey. Psychological Medicine, (35), 1773–1784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Medina-Mora, M. E, Borges, G., & Villatoro, J. (2000) The measurement of drinking patterns and consequences in Mexico. Journal of Substance Abuse, 12, 183–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Medina-Mora, M. E., Carlini, B., & Madrigal, E. (2000). Alcohol policies in developing countries: Latin America. Journal of Substance Use, 5(1), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Medina-Mora, M.E., Cravioto, P., Villatoro, J., Galvan, F., Fleiz, C., Rojas, E., Kuri, P., et al. (2004). Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones 2002, Capítulo Alcohol. Consejo Nacional contra las Adicciones, CONADIC, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, INPRFM, Dirección General de Epidemiología, DGE, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática INEGI. Distrito Federal México.Google Scholar
  35. Medina-Mora, M. E., & Fleiz, C. (2003). La salud mental y las adicciones: retos, barreras y perspectivas. Cuadernos de Nutrición, 26, 69–76.Google Scholar
  36. Merikangas, K. R., Mehta, R., Molnar, B. E., Walters, E. E., Swendsen, J. D., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A., Bijl, R., Borges, G., Caraveo, A. J., Dewit, D. J., Kolody, B., Vega, W. A., Wittchen, H., & Kessler, R. C. (1998). Comorbidity of substance use disorders with mood and anxiety disorders: Results of the international consortium in psychiatric epidemiology. Addictive Behaviors, 23(6), 893–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller, K. (1996). The effects of state terrorism and exile on indigenous Guatemalan refugee children: A mental health assessment and an analysis of children’s narratives. Child Development, 67(1), 89–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD). (2003). Informe sobre desarrollo humano 2003. Aarhus, Dinamarca : Phønix-Trykkeret A/S.Google Scholar
  39. Room, R. (1989). Cultural changes in drinking and trends in alcohol problems indicators: Recent US experience, Alcologia, 1(2), 83–89.Google Scholar
  40. Room, R., Jernigan, D., Carlini-Marlatt, B., Gureje, O., Mäkelä, K., Marshall, M., Medina-Mora, M. E., Monteiro, M., Parry, C., Partanen, J., Riley, L., & Saxena, S. (2002). Alcohol in Developing Societies: A Public Health Approach. In Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies in collaboration with The World Health Organization & New Century Schoolbook. pp. 9–275. Helsinki, Finland: Hakapaino Oy.Google Scholar
  41. Salgado de Snyder, V. N. (1993). Family life across the Border: Mexican wives left behind. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15(3), 391–401.Google Scholar
  42. Salgado de Snyder, V. N., & Diaz-Perez, M. J. (1999). Los trastornos afectivos en la población rural. Salud Mental, 22, 68–74.Google Scholar
  43. Salgado de Snyder, V. N., & Maldonado, M. (1993). Funcionamiento psicosocial en esposas de emigrantes mexicanos a los Estados Unidos. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 25(2).Google Scholar
  44. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2001). Office of Applied Studies. National household survey on drug abuse. Series H-17, DHHS Publication No. SMA 02-3578. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  45. Secretaria de Salud. (2002). Consejo Nacional Contra las Adicciones, Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría, & Dirección General de Epidemiología. Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones. Distrito Federal México: Author.Google Scholar
  46. Swanson, S. W., Linskey, A. O., Quintero-Salinas, R., Pumariega, A. J., & Holzer, C. E. (1992). A binational school survey of depressive symptoms, drug use and suicidal ideation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3, 669–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. United Nations. (2003). Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2002. (pp. 1–95). New York: Author.Google Scholar
  48. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2003). Global Illicit Drug Trends. New York: United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
  49. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Report to Congress on the Prevention and Treatment of Co-occurring Substance Abuse Disorders and Mental Disorders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Rockville, MD: DHHS. Retrieved on October 31, 2002, from http://www.samhsa.gov/reports/congress2002/CoOccurringRpt.pdf.
  50. U.S. Surgeon General. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: U.S Government.Google Scholar
  51. Vega, W. A., Gil, A., Warheit, G., Apospori, E., & Zimmerman, R. (1993). The relationship of drug use to suicide ideations and attempts among African American, Hispanic, and white non-Hispanic male adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening behavior, 23(2), 110–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alderete, E., Catalano, R., & Caraveo, A. J. (1998). Lifetime prevalence of DSM III-R psychiatric disorders among urban and rural Mexican Americans in California. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 771–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vega, W. A., Sribney, W. M., & Achara-Abrahams, L. (2003). Co-occurring alcohol, drug and other psychiatric disorders among Mexican-origin people in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1057–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Villatoro, J., Medina-Mora, M.E., Cravioto P., Fleiz, C., Galván, F., Rojas, E., Kuri, P., Ruíz, C., Catrejón, J., Velez, A., & García, A. (2002).Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, Capítulo de Drogas. Consejo Nacional contra las Adicciones CONADIC, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz INPRFM, Dirección General de Epidemiología, DGE, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática INEGI. Distrito Federal, México.Google Scholar
  55. World Health Organization (WHO). (1999). Global Status Report on Alcohol. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  56. World Health Organization (WHO) International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. (2000). Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 413–426.Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization (WHO). (2001). Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), certified version 15. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  58. World Health Organization (WHO). (2002). The World Health Report. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  59. World Health Organization (WHO). (2004a) Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  60. World Health Organization (WHO). (2004b) World Mental Health Survey Consortium: Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, J. P., Angermeyer, M. C., Bernert, S., de Girolamo, G., Morosini, P., Polidori, G., Kikkawa, T., Kawakami, N., Ono, Y., Takeshima, T., Uda, H., Karam, E. G., Fayyad, J. A., Karam, A. N., Mneimneh, Z. N., Medina-Mora, M. E., Borges, G., Lara, C., de Graaf, R., Ormel, J., Gureje, O., Shen, Y., Huang, Y., Zhang, M., Alonso, J., Haro, J. M., Vilagut, G., Bromet, E. J., Gluzman, S., Webb, C., Kessler, R. C., Merikangas, K. R., Anthony, J. C., Von Korff, M. R., Wang, P. S., Brugha, T. S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Lee, S., Heeringa, S., Pennell, B. E., Zaslavsky, A. M., Ustun, T. B., Chatterji, S. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21), 2581–2590.Google Scholar
  61. Zuñiga, E., Leite, P., & Nava, A. R. (2005). The new era of migration. Characteristics of international migration in Mexico. (pp. 115), Distrito Federal, México: CONAPO (National Population Council).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Elena Medina-Mora
    • 1
  • Estela Rojas Guiot
  • Guilherme Borges
  • Lucía Vázquez-Pérez
  • Clara Fleiz Bautista
  • Tania Real Quintanar
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la FuenteDepartment of Epidemiology and Psychosocial ResearchColonia San Lorenzo Huipulco, Delegacion Tlalpan14370 Mexico

Personalised recommendations