The Context of Depression in Latinos in the United States

  • Sergio A. Aguilar-Gaxiola
  • Elizabeth J. Kramer
  • Cynthia Resendez
  • Cristina G. Magaña
Part of the Issues in Children's and Families' Lives book series (IICL, volume 8)

Personal Journey: Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola

“You have no right to stop me from doing what I want to do,” said one of the most esteemed and effective volunteers at our residential therapeutic community and detoxification clinic. She tried to kill herself with a massive amount of pills that would have undoubtedly ended her life had her husband failed to discover her attempt. Her grim decision followed the announcement from her husband of many years that he was leaving her because she was unable to have the children he wanted. Her world crumbled shortly after the unwelcome news and she silently made the decision to end her life. She was admitted to the detoxification clinic I directed after I received a frantic call from her husband stating that she had overdosed on pills. The call completely took me by surprise because I had no idea that she was having marital problems or that she was abusing pills (based on my incorrect assumption upon her admittance), or, even less, that she was suicidal....


Mental Health Service Latino Population Latino Immigrant Outpatient Mental Health Service Idiomatic Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aguirre, B. R., Sáenz, R., James, B. S. (1997). Marielitos ten years later: The Scarface legacy. Social Science Quarterly, 78(2), 487–507.Google Scholar
  2. Alegria, M., Mulvaney-Day, N., Torres, M., Polo, A., Cao, Z., & Canino, G. (2007a) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 68–75.Google Scholar
  3. Alegria, M., Mulvaney-Day, N., Woo, M., Torres, M., Gao, S., & Oddo, V. (2007b) Correlates of past-year mental health service use among Latinos: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 76–83.Google Scholar
  4. Alonso, L., & Jeffrey, W. D. (1988). Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39(11), 1188–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV), Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychological Association. (1990). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Añez, L. M., Paris, M., Jr., Bedregal, L. E., Davidson, L., & Grilo, C. M. (2005). Application of cultural constructs in the care of first generation Latino clients in a community mental health setting. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(4), 221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Angel, R., & Guarnaccia, P. J. (1989). Mind, body, and culture: Somatization among Hispanics. Social Science and Medicine, 28(12), 1229–1238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Applewhite, S. L. (1995). Curanderismo: demystifying the health beliefs and practices of elderly Mexican Americans. Health and Social Work, 20(4), 247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baer, R. D., Weller, S. C., de Alba Garcia, J. G., Glazer, M., Trotter, R., Pachter, L., et al. (2003). A cross-cultural approach to the study of the folk illness nervios. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 27(3), 315–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baez, A., & Hernandez, D. (2001). Complementary spiritual beliefs in the Latino community: The interface with psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71(4), 408–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrio, C., Yamada, A. M., Atuel, H., Hough, R. L., Yee, S., Berthot, B., et al. (2003). A tri-ethnic examination of symptom expression on the positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 60(2–3), 259–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berry, J., Poortinga, Y., Segall, M., & Dasen, P. (1992). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Beyene, Y., Becker, G., & Mayen, N. (2002). Perception of aging and sense of well-being among Latino elderly. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 17(2), 155–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Black, S. A., & Markides, K. S. (1999). Depressive symptoms and mortality in older Mexican Americans. Annals of Epidemiology, 9(1), 45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Black, S. A., Markides, K. S., & Miller, T. Q. (1998). Correlates of depressive symptomatology among older community-dwelling Mexican Americans: the Hispanic EPESE. Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 53(4), S198–208.Google Scholar
  17. Borson, S., McDonald, G. J., Gayle, T., Deffebach, M., Lakshminarayan, S., & Van Tuien, C. (1992). Improvement in mood, physical symptoms, and function with nortriptyline for depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Psychosomatics, 33, 190–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breslau, J., Kendler, K. S., Su, M., Gaxiola-Aguilar, S., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Lifetime risk and persistence of psychiatric disorders across ethnic groups in the United States. Psychological Medicine, 35(3), 317–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruce, M. L., McAvay, G. J., Raue, P. J., Brown, E. L., Meyers, B. S., Keohane, D. J., et al. (2002). Major depression in elderly home health care patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(8), 1367–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burnette, D., & Mui, A. C. (1999). Physician utilization by Hispanic elderly persons: national perspective. Medical Care, 37(4), 362–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Canino, I.A., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino G., & Escobar J. I. (1992). Functional somatic symptoms: A cross ethnic comparison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(4), 605–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cherrington, A., Ayala, G.X., Sleath, B., & Corbie-Smith, G. (2006). Examining knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about depression among Latino adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 32(4), 603–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciechanowski, P. S., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2000). Depression and diabetes: Impact of depressive symptoms on adherence, function, and costs. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 3278–3285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiriboga, D. A., Black, S. A., Aranda, M., & Markides, K. (2002). Stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican American elders. Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B(6), 559–568.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, D.C., & Fawcett, J. (1992). Review of empirical risk factors for evaluation of the suicidal patient. In B.M. Bongar (Ed.), Suicide: guidelines for assessment, management, and treatment (pp. 16–48). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, C. I., Magai, C., Yaffee, R., & Walcott-Brown, L. (2005). Comparison of users and non-users of mental health services among depressed, older, urban African Americans. American Journal Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(7), 545–553.Google Scholar
  27. Comas-Diaz, L. (1996). Cultural considerations in diagnosis. In Kaslow, F. W. (Ed.), Handbook of relational diagnosis and dysfunctional family patterns (pp. 152–168). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  28. Compton, W.M., Consway, K.P., Stinson, F.S., & Grant, B.F. (2006). Changes in the prevalence of major depression and comorbid substance use disorders in the United States between 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(12), 2141–2147.Google Scholar
  29. Coryell, W., Endicott, J, & Keller, M. B. (1990). Outcome of patients with chronic affective disorder: A five-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1627–1633.Google Scholar
  30. Crystal, S., Sambamoorthi, U., Walkup, J. T., & Akincigil, A. (2003). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in the elderly Medicare population: Predictors, disparities, and trends. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 51(12), 1718–1728.Google Scholar
  31. Cuellar, I., Bastida, E., & Braccio, S. M. (2004). Residency in the United States, subjective well-being, and depression in an older Mexican-origin sample. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(4), 447–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Diaz, E., Woods, S.W., & Rosenheck, R.A. (2005). Effects of ethnicity on psychotropic medications adherence. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(5), 521–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dreby, J. (2006). Honor and virtue: Mexican parenting in the transnational context. Gender & Society, 20(1), 32–59.Google Scholar
  34. Druss, B.G., Marcus, S. C., Rosenheck, R.A., Olfson, M., Tanielian, T., & Pincus, H.A. (2000). Understanding disability in mental and general medical conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1485–1491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Escobar, J. I. (1995). Transcultural aspects of dissociative and somatoform disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3), 555–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Escobar, J. I., Randolph, E. T., & Hill, M. (1986). Symptoms of schizophrenia in Hispanic and Anglo veterans. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 10(3), 259–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Falcon, L. M., & Tucker, K. L. (2000). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among Hispanic elders in Massachusetts. Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Soc Sciences, 55(2), S108–116.Google Scholar
  38. Fann, J. R., Katon, W. J., Uomoto, J. M., & Esselman, P. C. (1995). Psychiatric disorders and functional disability in outpatients with traumatic brain injuries. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1493–1499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gafner, G., & Duckett, S. (1992). Treating the sequelae of a curse in elderly Mexican-Americans. Clinical Gerontologist, 11(3–4), 145–153.Google Scholar
  40. Gelman, C. (2002). The elder Latino population in Holyoke, MA: A qualitative study of unmet needs and community strengths. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 39(4), 89–107.Google Scholar
  41. Gloria, A. M., & Peregoy, J. J. (1996). Counseling Latino alcohol and other substance users/abusers. Cultural considerations for counselors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13(2), 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gonzalez, H. M., Haan, M. N., & Hinton, L. (2001). Acculturation and the prevalence of depression in older Mexican Americans: Baseline results of the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49(7), 948–953.Google Scholar
  43. Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Hasin, D. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., & Anderson, K. (2004). Immigration and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(12), 1226–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Guarnaccia, P. J., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Bravo, M. (1993). The prevalence of ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rico disaster study. The role of culture in psychiatric epidemiology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181(3), 157–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Guarnaccia, P. J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., & Marano, M. R. (2003). Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 27(3), 339–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Guarnaccia, P.J., & Rogler, H. (1999). Research on culture bound syndromes: New directions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(9), 1322–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Guarnaccia, P. J., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Canino, G. (1989). Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: The impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 13(3), 275–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Guttfreund, D.G. (1990). Effects of language usage on the emotional experience of Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 58(5), 604–607.Google Scholar
  49. Harwood, A. (1977). Rx: spiritist as needed: A study of a Puerto Rican community mental health resource. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Hernandez, A., & Sachs-Ericsson, N. (2006). Ethnic differences in pain reports and the moderating role of depression in a community sample of Hispanic and Caucasian participants with serious health problems. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1), 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Heo, M., Pietrobelli, A., Fontaine, K.R., Sirey, J.A., & Faith M.S. (2006). Depressive mood and obesity in US adults; Comparison and moderation by sex, age, and race. International Journal of Obesity, 30(3), 513–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hohmann, A. A., Richeport, M., Marriott, B. M., Canino, G. J., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Bird, H. (1990). Spiritism in Puerto Rico. Results of an island-wide community study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 328–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoppe, S. K., & Martin, H. W. (1986). Patterns of suicide among Mexican Americans and Anglos, 1960–1980. Social Psychiatry, 21(2), 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hovey, J. D. (1999). Religion and suicidal ideation in a sample of Latin American immigrants. Psychological Reports, 85(1), 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hu, T. W., Snowden, L. R., Jerrell, J. M., & Nguyen, T. D. (1991). Ethnic populations in public mental health: Services choice and level of use. American Journal of Public Health, 81(11), 1429–1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Juntunen, A. (2005). Baridi: A culture bound syndrome among the peoples in Tanzania. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 16(1), 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Katon, W. (1998). The effect of major depression on chronic medical illness. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 3, 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Katon, W.J., Schoenbaurm, M., Fan, M.Y., Callahan, C.Y., Williams, J., Jr., Hunkeler, E., et al. (2005). Cost effectiveness of improving primary care treatment of late-life depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1330–1320.Google Scholar
  59. Keegan, L. (2000). A comparison of the use of alternative therapies among Mexican Americans and Anglo-Americans in the Texas Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 18(3), 280–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P.A., Demler, O., Jin, R., Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kirmayer, L. J., Dao, T. H. T., & Smith, A. (1998). omatization and psychologization: Understanding cultural idioms of distress. In S. Okpaku (Ed.), Clinical methods in transcultural psychiatry (pp. 233–265). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  62. Kirmayer, L. J., & Young, A. (1998). Culture and somatization: Clinical, epidemiological, and ethnographic perspectives. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60(4), 420–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Klerman, G. L., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). The course, morbidity, and costs of depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(10), 831–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kochlar, R., Suro, R., & Tafoya, S (2005). The New Latino South: The context and consequences of rapid population growth. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from Scholar
  65. Krause, N., & Goldenhar, L. M. (1992). Acculturation and psychological distress in three groups of elderly Hispanics. Journal of Gerontology, 47(6), S279–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lefley, H. P. (1990). Culture and chronic mental illness. Hospital Community Psychiatry, 41(3), 277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Levine, R. E., & Gaw, A. C. (1995). Culture-bound syndromes. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3), 523–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewis-Fernandez, R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Martinez, I. E., Salman, E., Schmidt, A., & Liebowitz, M. (2002). Comparative phenomenology of ataques de nervios, panic attacks, and panic disorder. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 26(2), 199–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. López , R. (2005). Use of alternative folk medicine by Mexican American women. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(1), 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. López, S. R., & Guarnaccia, P. J. (2000). Cultural psychopathology: Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Luna, E. (2003). Las que curan at the heart of Hispanic culture. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 21(4), 326–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lustman, P. J., Clouse, R. E., & Freedland, K. E. (1998). Management of major depression in adults with diabetes: Implications of recent clinical trials. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 3, 102–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lyness, J. M., King, D. A., Cox, C., Yoediono, Z., & Caine, E. D. (1999). The importance of subsyndromal depression in older primary care patients: prevalence and associated functional disability. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 47(6), 647–652.Google Scholar
  74. Marcos, L. R., & Alpert, M. (1976). Strategies and risks in psychotherapy with bilingual patients: The phenomenon of language independence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133(11), 1275–1278.Google Scholar
  75. Marin, H., Escobar, J, & Vega, W.A. (2006). Mental illness in Hispanics: A review of the literature. Focus: The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, IV(1), 23–37.Google Scholar
  76. Marin, G., & Marin, B. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  77. Minsky, S., Vega, W., Miskimen, T., Gara, M., & Escobar, J. (2003). Diagnostic patterns in Latino, African American, and European American psychiatric patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(6), 637–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Morris, P. L., Raphael, B., & Robinson, R. G. (1992). Clinical depression is associated with impaired recovery from stroke. Medical Journal of Australia, 157(4), 239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mossey, J. M., Knott, K., & Craik, R. (1990). The effects of persistent depressive symptoms on hip fracture recovery. Journal of Gerontology, 45(5), M163–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murray, C.J. L., & Lopez, A.D. (Eds.). (1996). The global burden of disease. A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Mutchler, J. E., & Brallier, S. (1999). English language proficiency among older Hispanics in the United States. Gerontologist, 39(3), 310–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Niehaus, D. J., Stein, D. J., Koen, L., Lochner, C., Mueller, J. E., Mbanga, N. I., et al. (2005). A case of “ifufunyane”: A xhosa culture bound syndrome. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(6), 411–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Oquendo, M., Horwath, E., & Martinez, A. (1992). Ataques de nervios: Proposed diagnostic criteria for a culture specific syndrome. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 16(3), 367–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ostir, G. V., Eschbach, K., Markides, K. S., & Goodwin, J. S. (2003). Neighbourhood composition and depressive symptoms among older Mexican Americans. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, 57(12), 987–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pachter, L. M. (1994). Culture and clinical care. Folk illness beliefs and behaviors and their implications for health care delivery. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271(9), 690–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Padgett, D. K., Patrick, C., Burns, B. J., & Schlesinger, H. J. (1994). Ethnicity and the use of outpatient mental health services in a national insured population. American Journal of Public Health, 84(2), 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Padilla, R., Gomez, V., Biggerstaff, S. L., & Mehler, P. S. (2001). Use of curanderismo in a public health care system. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161(10), 1336–1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pasquali, E. A. (1994). Santeria. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(4), 380–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Penninx, B. W., Geerlings, S. W., Deeg, D. J., van Eijk, J. T., van Tilburg, W., & Beekman, A. T. (1999). Minor and major depression and the risk of death in older persons. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10), 889–895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pew Hispanic Center (2005). Hispanics: A people in motion. Washington, DC: The Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  91. Price, C.S., & Cuellar, I. (1981). Effects of language and related variables on the expression of psychopathology in Mexican American psychiatric patients. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3(2), 145–160.Google Scholar
  92. Quiñones-Rosado, R. (2002). Empowerment, Latino identity, and the process of transformation: Writing for people in the struggle against racism. Caguas, PR: Institute for Latino Empowerment.Google Scholar
  93. Rivera, J. O., Ortiz, M., Lawson, M. E., & Verma, K. M. (2002). Evaluation of the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the largest United States-Mexico border city. Pharmacotherapy, 22(2), 256–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Robison, J., Curry, L., Gruman, C., Covington, T., Gaztambide, S., & Blank, K. (2003). Depression in later-life Puerto Rican primary care patients: The role of illness, stress, social integration, and religiosity. International Psychogeriatrics, 15(3), 239–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rogler, L. H., Malgady, R. G., Constantino, G., & Blumenthal, R. (1987). What do culturally sensitive mental health services mean? The case of Hispanics. American Psychologist, 42, 565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rogler, L. H., Cortes, D. E., & Malgady, R. G. (1991). Acculturation and mental health status among Hispanics. Convergence and new directions for research. American Psychologist 46(6), 585–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Santiago-Rivera, A., Arredondo, P., & Gallardo-Cooper, M. (2002). Counseling Latinos and la familia: A practitioner’s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. Schulz, R., Drayer, R. A., & Rollman, B. L. (2002). Depression as a risk factor for non-suicide mortality in the elderly. Biological Psychiatry, 52(3), 205–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Stolley, J. M., & Koenig, H. (1997). Religion/spirituality and health among elderly African Americans and Hispanics. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 35(11), 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Strickland, B.R. (1992). Women and depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 132–135.Google Scholar
  101. Suarez, M., Raffaelli, M., & O'Leary, A. (1996). Use of folk healing practices by HIV-infected Hispanics living in the United States. AIDS Care, 8(6), 683–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Swenson, C. J., Baxter, J., Shetterly, S. M., Scarbro, S. L., & Hamman, R. F. (2000). Depressive symptoms in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White rural elderly: The San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152(11), 1048–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. The Institute for Medical Quality (2007). 2007 IMQ/CMA CME accreditation standards: A guide to continuing medical education in California. San Francisco, CA: IMQ/CMA Committee on Continuing Medical Education.Google Scholar
  104. Thornicroft, G., & Sartorius, N. (1993). The course and outcome of depression in different cultures: 10-year follow-up of the WHO Collaborative Study on the Assessment of Depressive Disorders. Psychological Medicine, 23, 1023–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Trotter, R. T., 2 nd. (1981). Remedios caseros: Mexican American home remedies and community health problems. Social Science and Medicine [Medical Anthropology], 15B(2), 107–114.Google Scholar
  106. U.S. Census Bureau (2004). US interim projections by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from .
  107. U.S. Census Bureau (2006). Nation’s population one-third minority. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from .
  108. U.S. Census Bureau (2007). American community survey reports. The American community-Hispanics: 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from
  109. U.S. Census Bureau (2008). Population Estimates July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006. Retrieved June 29, 2008, from
  110. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Mental health: culture, race, and ethnicity: A supplement to Mental Health: A report of the surgeon general. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from
  111. Unützer J., Katon, W., Callahan, C.M., Williams, J.W., Jr., Hunkeler, E., Harpole, L., Hoffing, M., Della Penna, R.D., Noel, P.H., Lin, E.B., Tang, L., & Oishi, S. (2003). Depression treatment in a sample of 1,801 depressed older patients in primary care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 505–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vasquez, C., & Javier, R.A. (1991). The problem with interpreters: Communicating with Spanish speaking-patients. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 133(11), 1275–1278.Google Scholar
  113. Vega, W. A., Alderete, E., Kolody, B., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (1998). Illicit drug use among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in California: The effects of gender and acculturation. Addiction, 93(12), 1839–1850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alderete, E., Catalano, R., & Caraveo-Anduaga, J. (1998). Lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among urban and rural Mexican Americans in California. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(9), 771–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Catalano, R. (1999). Gaps in service utilization by Mexican Americans with mental health problems. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(6), 928–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Vega, W. A., Sribney, W. M., & Achara-Abrahams, I. (2003). Co-occurring alcohol, drug, and other psychiatric disorders among Mexican-origin people in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1057–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Vega, W. A., Sribney, W. M., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Kolody, B. (2004). 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans: Nativity, social assimilation, and age determinants. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 192(8), 532–541.Google Scholar
  118. Weisman, A. G., López , S. R., Ventura, J., Nuechterlein, K. H., Goldstein, M. J., & Hwang, S. (2000). A comparison of psychiatric symptoms between Anglo-Americans and Mexican-Americans with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26(4), 817–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wells, K., Klap, R., Koike, A., & Sherbourne, C. (2001). Ethnic disparities in unmet need for alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health care. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(12), 2027–2032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Welte, J. W., & Barnes, G. M. (1995). Alcohol and other drug use among Hispanics in New York State. Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research, 19(4), 1061–1066.Google Scholar
  121. Wilkinson, A. V., Spitz, M. R., Strom, S. S., Prokhorov, A. V., Barcenas, C. H., Cao, Y., Saunders, K. C., & Bondy, M. L. (2005). Effects of nativity, age at migration, and acculturation on smoking among adult Houston residents of Mexican descent. American Journal of Public Health, 95(6), 1043–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Workgroup on Psychiatric Evaluation (2006). Practice guideline for the psychiatric evaluation of adults (2 nd ed.). Retrieved November 4, 2007, from
  123. Zayas, L. H., & Ozuah, P. O. (1996). Mercury use in espiritismo: A survey of botanicas. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 111–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Zeilmann, C. A., Dole, E. J., Skipper, B. J., McCabe, M., Dog, T. L., & Rhyne, R. L. (2003). Use of herbal medicine by elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients. Pharmacotherapy, 23(4), 526–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zimmerman, F.J. (2005). Social and economic determinants of disparities in professional help-seeking for child mental health problems: evidence from a national sample. Health Services Research, 40(5 Pt1), 1514–1513.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio A. Aguilar-Gaxiola
    • 1
  • Elizabeth J. Kramer
  • Cynthia Resendez
  • Cristina G. Magaña
  1. 1.Professor of Clinical Internal Medicine and Director, Center for Reducing Health Disparities (CRHD)University of California, Davis, School of MedicineSacramento

Personalised recommendations