Atrazine Interaction with Estrogen Expression Systems

  • J. Charles EldridgeEmail author
  • James T. Stevens
  • Charles B. Breckenridge
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 196)

1 Introduction

Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is a herbicide used to control growth of many broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses, particularly in corn and sorghum crops (Vencill 2002). Atrazine inhibits plant photosynthesis by binding to the D1 protein of the protein-bound plastoquinone (Qb) located in the plant thylakoid membrane (Devine et al. 1993), thereby preventing electron transfer at the reducing site of chloroplast complex II (Good 1961). Atrazine and its mono- and didealkylated metabolites are moderately mobile in soil (Qiao et al. 1996), are persistent in the environment, with a soil half-life of 17–26 d (Winkelmann and Kliane 1990), and are detected in surface water (Schottler et al. 1998). Because of these characteristics, the EPA Office of Drinking Water has established an annual average maximum contaminant level (MCL) for atrazine of 3 ppb (US EPA 1996). More recently, the Office of Pesticide Planning has determined that a 90-d average...


Estrogen Receptor Luteinizing Hormone Maximum Tolerate Dose Uterine Weight Luteinizing Hormone Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Charles Eldridge
    • 1
    Email author
  • James T. Stevens
    • 1
  • Charles B. Breckenridge
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Human Safety AssessmentSyngenta Crop Protection, Inc.GreensboroUSA

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