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Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Carbaryl

  • Amrith S. Gunasekara
  • Andrew L. Rubin
  • Kean S. Goh
  • Frank C. Spurlock
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 196)

1 Introduction

Carbaryl (1-naphthyl- N-methyl carbamate; Fig. 1), a carbamate insecticide introduced in 1956 by Union Carbide Corporation, is used worldwide and is a substitute for some organochlorine insecticides (Ribera et al. 2001). Carbaryl is used to control a broad spectrum of insects on more than 120 different crops (Ware 2000). It has also been used to prevent bark beetle infestation in pine trees (Hastings et al. 2001) and as a general garden insecticide (Ware 2000). In 2005, approximately 189,800 lbs of the insecticide was applied in California alone (CDPR 2005). Annual use in the United States has been reported to be 4.5 –6.8 million kg (Cox 1993). Several trade names are associated with carbaryl (the most common is Sevin®), and active ingredient (a.i.) use rates range from 0.57 to 4.5 kg/ha (Rajagopal et al. 1984). Carbaryl is available in the forms of a wettable powder, pellets, granules, suspensions, and solutions, and is the second most widely detected insecticide in...

Keywords

Compound Muscle Action Potential Amplitude Carbamic Acid Hydroxyl Radical Attack Ethyl Parathion Carbaryl Absorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Branch of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA), and the California Rice Research Board. The statements and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the supporting agencies. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with materials reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amrith S. Gunasekara
    • 1
    • 3
  • Andrew L. Rubin
    • 2
  • Kean S. Goh
    • 2
  • Frank C. Spurlock
    • 2
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pesticide RegulationCalifornia Environmental Protection AgencySacramentoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Inspection Services (FFLDERS)California Department of Food and AgricultureSacramentoUSA

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