Signal Recording and Data Acquisition

  • Whitlow W.L. Au
  • Mardi C. Hastings
Part of the Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing book series (MASP)

Measurement of Underwater Sounds

A simple fairly generic system for measuring and storing underwater acoustic signals is depicted in Fig. 5.1. The first componnt in the signal acquisition chain consists of a sensing element, usually a hydrophone that has integrated within its housing a pre-amplifier and line driver or a hydrophone connected to a relatively short cable (up to 10–20 m depending on the capacity of the sensor to drive the cable). The next component is usually a filter, a high pass, low pass, or bandpass filter followed by an amplifier. After the amplifier, there is usually a monitor of some sort in parallel with some type of recording device. Typical monitors include oscilloscopes, voltmeters, and spectrum analyzers. The storage device can be a strip chart recorder, an analog tape recorder, a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder, a digital oscilloscope with memory and disc storage capabilities, a digital spectrum analyzer with memory and disc storage...


Sound Source Marine Mammal Ambient Noise Binary Number Nyquist Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aubauer, R. (1995). “Korrelationsverfahren zur Flugbahnverfolgung echoortender Fledermäuse,” Fortschr.-Ber. VDI Reihe 17 Nr. 132 (Düsseldorf, VDI-Verlag).Google Scholar
  2. Aubauer, R., Lammers, M. O., and Au, W. W. L. (2000). “One-hydrophone method of estimating distance and depth of phonating dolphins in shallow waters,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am . 107, 2744–2149.Google Scholar
  3. Au, W. W. L., Lammers, M. O., and Aubauer, R. (1999). “A portable broadband data acquistion system for field studies in bioacoustics,” Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15, 526–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cato, D. (1998). “Simple methods of estimating source levels and locations of marine animal sounds,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 1667–1678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, C. W., Ellison, W. T., and Beeman, K. (1986). “Acoustic tracking of migrating Bowhead whales,” IEEE Oceans '86 Conf. Proc., Washington DC, pp. 341–345.Google Scholar
  6. Frankel, A. S. (1994). “Acoustic and visual tracking revels distribution, song variability and social roles of humpback whales in hawaiian waters,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  7. Franz, G. J. (1959). “Splashes as sources of sound in liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 1080–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heindsman, T. E., Smith, R. H., and Arneson, A. D. (1955). “Effect of rain upon underwater noise levels,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 27, 378–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huber, D. M. and Runstein, R. A. (1989). Modern Recording Techniques, 3rd Edition (Howard W. Sams & Co., Indianapolis, Indiana).Google Scholar
  10. Knudsen, V. O., Alford, R. S., and Emling, J. W. (1948). “Underwater ambient noise,” J. Mar. Res. 7, 410–429.Google Scholar
  11. McGrath, J. R. (1976). “Infrasonic sea noise at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 37°N,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60, 1290–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mellinger, D. K. (1995). “Near-field passive acoustic localization,” Notes from Bioacoustical Oceanography Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, August, 1995.Google Scholar
  13. Mellon, R. H. (1952). “The Thermal-Noise Limit in the Detection of Underwater Acoustic Signals.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 24, 478–480.Google Scholar
  14. Morris, G. B. (1978). “Depth dependence of ambient noise in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 581–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Northrup, J. (1974). “Detection of low-frequency underwater sounds from a submarine volcano in the Western Pacific,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 837–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Piggott , C. L., (1965) “Ambient sea noise at low frequencies in shallow water of the Scotian Shelf,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36, 2152–2163.Google Scholar
  17. Spiesberger, J. L. and Fristrup, K. M. (1990). “Passive localization of calling animals and sensing of their acoustic environment using acoustic tomography,” Am. Nat. 135, 107–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Watkins, W. A. and Schevill, W. E. (1972). “Sound source location by arrival-times on a non-rigid three-dimensional hydrophone array,” Deep Sea Res. 19, 691–705.Google Scholar
  19. Thomas, J. A., Fisher, S. R., and Ferm, L. M. (1986). “Acoustic detection of cetaceans using a towed array of hydrophones,” Rep. Int. Whal. Comm, No. SC/37/03,8, 139–148.Google Scholar
  20. Urick, R. J., Lund, G. R., and Tulko, T. J. (1972). “Depth profile of ambient noise in the deep sea north of St. Croix, Virgin Islands,” U.S. Navvy Ord. Lab Tech. Rep. 72–175.Google Scholar
  21. Urick, R. J. (1983). Principles of Underwater Sound (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  22. Urick, R. J. (1984). Ambient Noise in the Sea (Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington DC).Google Scholar
  23. Wenz, G. M. (1962). “Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: spectra and sources,” Acoust. Soc. Am. 34, 1935–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Marine BiologyUniversity of HawaiiKaneoheUSA
  2. 2.Applied Research LaboratoryPenn State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations