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Measurement and Generation of Underwater Sounds

  • Whitlow W.L. Au
  • Mardi C. Hastings
Chapter
Part of the Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing book series (MASP)

Electroacoustic Transducers

Acoustic signals are detected and generated with devices called electroacoustic transducers. These devices convert electrical energy into acoustic energy or acoustic energy into electrical energy. Transducer that converts acoustic energy into electrical energy has traditionally been called hydrophones or receiving transducers. Likewise, devices that convert electrical energy into acoustic energy are referred to as projectors or transmitting transducers. Many electroacoustic devices are used for both receiving and transmitting acoustic signals and are referred to as transducers.

In many instances, a bioacoustician has to construct his/her own transducer because of a special application requiring an unusual design or size, or because of budgetary constraints. The goal of this chapter is to provide sufficient information so you could, if necessary, construct transducers with a reasonable certainty of being successful, but without the need to become a transducer...

Keywords

Barium Titanate Piezoelectric Transducer Acoustic Pressure Piezoelectric Ceramic Piezoelectric Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

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  7. Patterson, R. B. (1967). “Using the ocean surface on a reflector for a self-reciprocity calibration of a transducer,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 42, 653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  9. Urick, R. J. (1983). Principles of Underwater Sound, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Marine BiologyUniversity of HawaiiKaneoheUSA
  2. 2.Applied Research LaboratoryPenn State UniversityUSA

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