Emission of Social Sounds by Marine Animals

  • Whitlow W.L. Au
  • Mardi C. Hastings
Part of the Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing book series (MASP)
Social sounds of marine mammals are usually studied with a spectrographic analyzer that determines the “instantaneous” frequency and relative amplitude of a signal as a function of time, with the information usually plotted as a spectrogram. A spectrogram is a two-dimensional time- frequency representation of a signal with one axis representing time and the other orthogonal axis representing frequency. The relative amplitude of the signal at any specific time and frequency is represented by various shades of gray (the darkest shade representing the maximum amplitude) for a black-and-white display or by different colors, with a color scale usually plotted somewhere on the spectrogram. Most, if not all, modern spectrograph analyzers use a short-term Fourier transform technique to determine the frequency content of the signal. In the short-time Fourier transform technique, the signal is divided into fixed blocks of Npoints. Each block is passed through a windowing function and an FFT...


Killer Whale Bottlenose Dolphin Sperm Whale Minke Whale Humpback Whale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Marine BiologyUniversity of HawaiiKaneoheUSA
  2. 2.Applied Research LaboratoryPenn State UniversityUSA

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