When differential motion occurs between a sea ice cover and the upper ocean, momentum is exchanged across a turbulent boundary layer. If the heat and mass balance at the ice-ocean interface dictates ice growth or ablation, the turbulence will also transport heat and salt. This chapter introduces basic features of turbulence in natural flows, by describing general characteristics of turbulence; how it is measured in the somewhat unique under-ice environment; along with a discussion of how turbulent fluxes are estimated, including statistical significance and assumptions underlying the connections between time-series covariances and ensemble averages of turbulent fluctuation products. Simplified forms of the turbulent kinetic energy and scalar variance equations are described, and related to spectral characteristics including a length scale proportional to the inverse wave number at the peak in the vertical velocity spectrum.


Vertical Velocity Turbulent Kinetic Energy Eddy Viscosity Turbulent Heat Flux Inertial Subrange 
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