Sex Differences in Pain

  • Edmund Keogh


It is now generally acknowledged that sex and gender are important factors in the perception and experience of pain (Berkley, 1997; Berkley, Hoffman, Murphy, & Holdcroft, 2002; Bernardes, Keogh, & Lima, 2008; Dao & LeResche, 2000; Fillingim, 2000; Holdcroft & Berkley, 2005; Keogh, 2006; LeResche, 1999; Rollman & Lautenbacher, 2001; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, 2005). The focus of this chapter will be to review the evidence for variability in human pain experiences, as ascribed to the sex of the individual, as well as considering some of the reasons why such differences exist. As will become apparent, not only are there important biological differences that help to explain why men and women may differ, but there are a range of psychological and socio-cultural factors that need to be considered when attempting to account for sex-specific variation in pain and analgesia.

Evidence for Sex Differences in Pain and Analgesia

Sex Differences in Prevalence of Pain Experience

Evidence for sex...


Pain Sensitivity Chronic Pain Patient Pain Report Pain Task Cold Pressor Pain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Pain Research & Department of PsychologyUniversity of BathClaverton DownUK

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