Asthma in Minority Populations

  • Alexander N. Ortega
  • Daphne Koinis-Mitchell
  • Peter J. Gergen


This chapter presents information on asthma in the minority population in the United States. The asthma literature is vast with over 4,000 new studies being added each year. Despite this impressive number of publications, the asthma literature on ethnic and racial minorities is sufficient enough only to discuss the black and Latino experiences. Furthermore, most asthma studies include children, since asthma is the most common childhood chronic disease. Thus, we focus most of our review on asthma in children. The observations for minority children and adults are similar. In brief, Latino and black children and adults have higher prevalence rates of asthma, have a higher likelihood of being hospitalized for asthma, have asthma symptoms that are poorly controlled and managed, and have higher asthma-related mortality rates than their white counterparts (Canino et al. 2006; Hunninghake et al. 2006; Mannnino et al. 1998; Ortega and Calderon 2000; Rhodes et al. 2003; Shapiro and Stout 2002).


Parental Stress Minority Population Asthma Management Asthma Medication Latino Youth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akinbami LJ, Rhodes JC, Lara M (2005) Racial and ethnic differences in asthma diagnosis among children who wheeze. Pediatrics 115(5):1254–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apter AJ, Reisine ST, Affleck G, Barrows E, ZuWallack RL (1998) Adherence with twice-daily dosing of inhaled steroids. Socioeconomic and health-belief differences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157(Pt 1):1810–1817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbes SJ, Gergen PJ, Elliott L, Zeldin DC (2005) Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(2):377–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakirtas A, Turktas I (2006) Determinants of airway responsiveness to adenosine 5′-monophosphate in school-age children with asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol 41(6):515–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett SJ, Krishnan JA, Riekert KA, Butz AM, Malveaux FJ, Rand CS (2004) Maternal depressive symptoms and adherence to therapy in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics 113(2):229–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bearison DJ, Minian N, Granowetter L (2002) Medical management of asthma and folk medicine in a Hispanic community. J Pediatr Psychol 27(4):385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belanger K, Beckett W, Triche E, Bracken MB, Holford T, Ren P, McSharry JE, Gold DR, Platts-Mills TA, Leaderer BP (2003) Symptoms of wheeze and persistent cough in the first year of life: associations with indoor allergens, air contaminants, and maternal history of asthma. Am J Epidemiol 158(3):195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender BG, Annett RD, Ikle D, DuHamel TR, Rand C, Strunk RC (2000) Relationship between disease and psychological adaptation in children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and their Families. CAMP Research Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154(7):706–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg J, Wahlgren DR, Hofstetter R, Meltzer SB, Meltzer EO, Matt GE, Martinez-Donate A, Hovell MF (2004) Latino children with asthma: rates and risks for medical care utilization. J Asthma 41(2):147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanck HM, Dietz WH, Galuska DA, Gillespie C, Hamre R, Kettel Khan L, Serdula MK, Ford ES, Garvin WS, Mokdad AH, Densmore D (2006) State-specific prevalence of obesity among adults – United States, 2005. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55(36):985–988Google Scholar
  11. Boudreaux ED, Emond SD, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2003a) Race/ethnicity and asthma among children presenting to the emergency department: differences in disease severity and management. Pediatrics 111(5 Pt 1):e615–e621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boudreaux ED, Emond SD, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2003b) Acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department: the role of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Chest 124(3):803–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braganza S, Ozuah PO, Sharif I (2003) The use of complementary therapies in inner-city asthmatic children. J Asthma 40(7):823–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burchard EG, Avila PC, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres A, Rodriguez-Santana JR, Toscano M, Sylvia JS, Alioto M, Salazar M, Gomez I, Fagan JK, Salas J, Lilly C, Matallana H, Ziv E, Castro R, Selman M, Chapela R, Sheppard D, Weiss ST, Ford JG, Boushey HA, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Drazen JM, Silverman EK (2004) Lower bronchodilator responsiveness in Puerto Rican than in Mexican subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169(3):386–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butz AM, Eggleston P, Huss K, Kolodner K, Rand C (2000) Nebulizer use in inner-city children with asthma: morbidity, medication use, and asthma management practices. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154(10):984–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Butz AM, Tsoukleris MG, Donithan M, Hsu VD, Zuckerman I, Mudd KE, Thompson RE, Rand C, Bollinger ME (2006) Effectiveness of nebulizer use-targeted asthma education on underserved children with asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160(6):622–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canino G, Koines-Mitchell D, Ortega AN, McQuaid EL, Fritz GK, Alegria M (2006) Asthma disparities in the prevalence, morbidity, and treatment of Latino children. Soc Sci Med 63(11):2926–2937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr RE (1998) Panic disorder and asthma: causes, effects and research implications. J Psychosom Res 44(1):43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr RE, Lehrer PM, Hochron SM, Jackson A (1996) Effect of psychological stress on airway impedance in individuals with asthma and panic disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 105(1):137–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carr RE, Lehrer PM, Rausch LL, Hochron SM (1994) Anxiety sensitivity and panic attacks in an asthmatic population. Behav Res Ther 32(4):411–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carswell F, Heck G, Robinson E, Hallows D, Peters T, Stanton T (1990) Family stress and childhood asthma. Nurs Pract 3(3):10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carter-Pokras OD, Gergen PJ (1993) Reported asthma among Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, and Cuban children. Am J Public Health 83(4):580–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan KS, Keeler E, Schonlau M, Rosen M, Mangione-Smith R (2005) How do ethnicity and primary language spoken at home affect management practices and outcome in children and adolescents with asthma? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159(3):283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen E, Bloomberg GR, Fisher EGJ, Strunk RC (2003) Predictors of repeat hospitalizations in children with asthma: the role of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors. Health Psychol 22(1):12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choudhry S, Avila PC, Nazario S, Ung N, Kho J, Rodriguez-Santana JR, Casal J, Tsai HJ, Torres A, Ziv E, Toscano M, Sylvia JS, Alioto M, Salazar M, Gomez I, Fagan JK, Salas J, Lilly C, Matallana H, Castro RA, Selman M, Weiss ST, Ford JG, Drazen JM, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Chapela R, Silverman EK, Burchard EG (2005) CD14 tobacco gene-environment interaction modifies asthma severity and immunoglobulin E levels in Latinos with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172(2):173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choudhry S, Ung N, Avila PC et al. (2005) Pharmacogenetic differences in response to atbuterol between Puerto Ricans and Mexicans with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(6):563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cluley S, Cochrane GM (2001) Psychological disorder in asthma is associated with poor control and poor adherence to inhaled steroids. Respir Med 95(1):37–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen RT, Celedon JC, Hinckson VJ, Ramsey CD, Wakefield DB, Weiss ST, Cloutier MM (2006) Health-care use among Puerto Rican and African-American children with asthma. Chest 130(2):463–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conn KM, Halterman JS, Fisher SG, Yoos HL, Chin NP, Szilagyi PG (2005) Parental beliefs about medications and medication adherence among urban children with asthma. Ambul Pediatr 5(5):306–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Corburn J, Osleeb J, Porter M (2006) Urban asthma and the neighbourhood environment in New York City. Health Place 12(2):167–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cunningham J, Dockery DW, Speizer FE (1996) Race, asthma, and persistent wheeze in Philadelphia school children. Am J Public Health 86(10):1406–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davies SJ, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE (2001) Dysfunctional breathing and asthma: panic disorder needs to be considered. Br Med J 323(7313):631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donahue JG, Weiss ST, Livingston JM, Goetsch MA, Greineder DK, Platt R (1997) Inhaled steroids and the risk of hospitalization for asthma. J Am Med Assoc 277(11):887–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eggleston PA, Butz A, Rand C, Curtin-Brosnan J, Kanchanaraksa S, Swartz L, Breysse P, Buckley T, Diette G, Merriman B, Krishnan JA (2005) Home environmental intervention in inner-city asthma: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 95(6):518–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eggleston PA, Rosenstreich D, Lynn H, Gergen P, Baker D, Kattan M, Mortimer KM, Mitchell H, Ownby D, Slavin R, Malveaux F (1998) Relationship of indoor allergen exposure to skin test sensitivity in inner-city children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102(4 Pt 1):563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. El-Ekiaby A, Brianas L, Skowronski ME, Coreno AJ, Galan G, Kaeberlein FJ, Seitz RE, Villaba KD, Dickey-White D, McFadden ER Jr (2006) Impact of race on the severity of acute episodes of asthma and adrenergic responsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174(5):508–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eldeirawi KM, Persky VW (2006) Associations of acculturation and country of birth with asthma and wheezing in Mexican American youths. J Asthma 43(4):279–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Evans R 3rd, Gergen PJ, Mitchell H, Kattan M, Kerscmar C, Crain E, Anderson J, Eggleston P, Malveaux FJ, Wedner HJ (1999) A randomized clinical trial to reduce asthma morbidity among inner-city children: results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study. J Pediatr 135(3):332–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Federico MJ, Covar RA, Brown EE, Leung DYM, Spahn JD (2005) Racial differences in T-lymphocyte response to glucocorticoids. Chest 127(2):571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feldman JM, Ortega AN, McQuaid EL, Canino G (2006) Comorbidity betweenasthma attacks and internalizing disorders among Puerto Rican children at one-year follow-up. Psychosomatics 47(4):333–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flores G (2004) Culture, ethnicity, and linguistic issues in pediatric care: urgent priorities and unanswered questions. Ambul Pediatr 4(4):276–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Frankel K, Wamboldt MZ (1998) Chronic childhood illness and maternal mental health – why should we care? J Asthma 35(8):621–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Freeman NC, Schneider D, McGarvey P (2003) The relationship of health insurance to the diagnosis and management of asthma and respiratory problems in children in a predominately Hispanic urban community. Am J Public Health 93:1316–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gent JF, Triche EW, Holford TR, Belanger K, Bracken MB, Beckett WS, Leaderer BP (2003) Association of low-level ozone and fine particles with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. J Am Med Assoc 290(14):1859–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. George M, Apter AJ (2004) Gaining insight into patients’ beliefs using qualitative research methodologies. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4(3):185–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. George M, Freedman TG, Norfleet AL, Feldman HI, Apter AJ (2003) Qualitative research-enhanced understanding of patients’ beliefs: results of focus groups with low-income, urban, African American adults with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(5):967–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gergen P (1996) Social class and asthma – distinguishing between the disease and the diagnosis. Am J Public Health 86(10):1361–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gold DR, Wright R (2005) Population disparities in asthma. Annu Rev Public Health 26:89–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goodwin RD, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ (2004) Asthma and depressive and anxiety disorders among young persons in the community. Psychol Med 34(8):1465–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goodwin RD, Messineo K, Bregante A, Hoven CW, Kairam R (2005) Prevalence of probable mental disorders among pediatric asthma patients in an inner-city clinic. J Asthma 42(8):643–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gunderson EKE, Garland CF, Gorham ED (2005) Health surveillance for asthma in the US Navy: experience of 9, 185, 484 person-years. Ann Epidemiol 15(4):310–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gunnbjornsdottir MI, Omenaas E, Gislason T, Norman E, Olin AC, Jogi R, Jensen EJ, Lindberg E, Bjornsson E, Franklin K, Janson C, Gulsvik A, Laerum B, Svanes C, Toren K, Tunsater A, Lillienberg L, Gislason D, Blondal T, Bjornsdottir US, Jorundsdottir KB, Talvik R, Forsberg B, Franklin K, Lundback B, Soderberg M, Ledin MC, Boman G, Norback D, Wieslander G, Spetz-Nystrom U, Cashelunge KS, Ryden E (2004) Obesity and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux are related to onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms. Eur Respir J 24(1):116–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hankinson JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB (1999) Spirometric reference values from a sample of the general U.S. population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159(1):179–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hasler G, Gergen PJ, Kleinbaum DG, Ajdacic V, Gamma A, Eich D, Rossler W, Angst J (2005) Asthma and panic in young adults: a 20-year prospective community study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(11):1224–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Homa D, Mannino D, Lara M (2000) Asthma mortality in U.S. Hispanics of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban heritage, 1990–1995. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161(2 Pt 1):504–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Horne R, Weinman J (1999) Patients’ beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness. J Psychosom Res 47(6):555–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hunninghake GM, Weiss ST, Celedon JC (2006) Asthma in Hispanics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173(2):143–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jones CA, Clement LT, Morphew T, Kwong KYC, Hanley-Lopez J, Lifson F, Opas L, Guterman JJ (2007) Achieving and maintaining asthma control in an urban pediatric disease management program: the Breathmobile Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119(6):1445–1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Joseph CLM, Ownby DR, Peterson EL, Johnson CC (2000) Racial differences in physiologic parameters related to asthma among middle-class children. Chest 117(5):1336–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kattan M, Stearns SC, Crain EF, Stout JW, Gergen PJ, Evans R 3rd, Visness CM, Gruchalla RS, Morgan WJ, O’Connor GT, Mastin JP, Mitchell HE (2005) Cost-effectiveness of a home-based environmental intervention for inner-city children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(5):1058–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klein DF (2001) Asthma and psychiatric illness. J Am Med Assoc 285(7):881–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koinis-Mitchell D, Adams SK, Murdock KK (2005) Associations among risk factors, individual resources, and indices of school-related asthma morbidity in urban, school-aged children: a pilot study. J Sch Health 75(10):375–383Google Scholar
  63. Koinis-Mitchell D, Murdock KK (2005) Identifying risk and resource factors in children with asthma from urban settings: the context-health-development model. J Asthma 42(6):425–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Koinis-Mitchell D, Murdock KK, McQuaid EL (2004) Risk and resilience in urban children with asthma. Child Health Care 33:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Koinis-Mitchell D, McQuaid EL, Seifer R, Kopel SJ, Esteban C, Canino G, Garcia-Coll C, Klein R, Fritz GK (2007) Multiple urban and asthma-related risks and their association with asthma morbidity in children. J Pediatr Psychol 32(5):582–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kwon HL, Ortiz B, Swaner R, Shoemaker K, Jean-Louis B, Northridge ME, Vaughan RD, Marx T, Goodman A, Borrell LN, Nicholas SW (2006) Childhood asthma and extreme values of body mass index: the Harlem children’s zone asthma initiative. J Urban Health 83(3):421–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lara M, Akinbami L, Flores G, Morgenstern H (2006) Heterogeneity of childhood asthma among Hispanic children: Puerto Rican children bear a disproportionate burden. Pediatrics 117(1):43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leaderer BP, Belanger K, Triche E, Holford T, Gold DR, Kim Y, Jankun T, Ren P, McSharry Je JE, Platts-Mills TA, Chapman MD, Bracken MB (2002) Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density. Environ Health Perspect 110(4):419–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ledogar R, Penchascadeh A, Iglesias Garden C, Acosta L (2000) Asthma and Latino cultures: different prevalence reported among groups sharing the same environment. Am J Public Health 90(6):929–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lester LA, Rick SS, Blumenthal MN, Togias A, Murphy S, Malveaux F, Miller ME, Dunston GM, Solway J, Wolf RL, Samet JM, Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Ober C, Bleecker ER (2001) Ethnic differences in asthma and associated phenotypes: collaborative study on the genetics of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(3):357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lieu TA, Lozano P, Finkelstein JA, Chi FW, Jensvold NG, Capra AM, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV, Farber HJ (2002) Racial/ethnic variation in asthma status and management practices among children in managed Medicaid. Pediatrics 109(5):857–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lind DL, Choudhry S, Ung N, Ziv E, Avila PC, Salari K, Ha C, Lovins EG, Coyle NE, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres A, Rodriguez-Santana JR, Matallana H, Lilly CM, Salas J, Selman M, Boushey HA, Weiss ST, Chapela R, Ford JG, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Silverman EK, Sheppard D, Kwok PY, Gonzalez Burchard E (2003) ADAM33 is not associated with asthma in Puerto Rican or Mexican populations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168(11):1312–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Litonjua AA, Celedon JC, Hausmann J, Nikolov M, Sredl D, Ryan L, Platts-Mills TA, Weiss ST, Gold DR (2005) Variation in total and specific IgE: effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115(4):751–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Luthar SS, Cicchetti D, Becker B (2000) The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev 71(3):543–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mannino DM, Homa DM, Akinbami LJ, Moorman JE, Gwynn C, Redd SC (2002) Surveillance for asthma – United States, 1980–1999. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51(SS01):1–13Google Scholar
  76. Mannnino DM, Homa DM, Pertowski CA, Ashizawa A, Nixon LL, Johnson CA, Ball LB, Jack E, Kang DS (1998) Surveillance for asthma – United States, 1960–1995. In CDC Surveillance Summaries, April 24, 1998. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47(No. SS-1):1–27Google Scholar
  77. Mickleborough TD, Rundell KW (2005) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma-and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(12):1335–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Miller JE (2000) The effects of race/ethnicity and income on early childhood asthma prevalence and health care use. Am J Public Health 90(3):428–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morgan WJ, Crain EF, Gruchalla RS, O’Connor GT, Kattan M, Evans R 3rd, Stout J, Malindzak G, Smartt E, Plaut M, Walter M, Vaughn B, Mitchell H (2004) Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Eng J Med 351(11):1068–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mrazek DA (1997) Psychological aspects in children and adolescents. In: Barnes PJ, Grunstein MM, Leff AR, Woolcock AJ (eds) Asthma. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 2177–2183Google Scholar
  81. Ogden CL, Tabak CJ (2005) Children and teens told by doctors that they were overweight. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54(34):848–849Google Scholar
  82. Ortega AN, Belanger KD, Paltiel AD, Horwitz SM, Bracken MB, Leaderer BP (2001) Use of health services by insurance status among children with asthma. Med Care 39(10):1065–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ortega AN, Calderon JG (2000) Pediatric asthma among minority populations. Curr Opin Pediatr 12(6):579–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ortega AN, Feldman JM, Canino G, Steinman K, Alegria M (2006) Co-occurrence of mental and physical illness in US Latinos. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 41(12):927–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ortega AN, Gergen PJ, Paltiel AD, Bauchner H, Belanger KD, Leaderer BP (2002a) Impact of site care, race, and Hispanic ethnicity on medication use for childhood asthma. Pediatrics 109(1):E1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ortega AN, Goodwin RD, McQuaid EL, Canino G (2004a) Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth. Ambul Pediatr 4(4):308–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ortega AN, Huertas SE, Canino G, Ramirez R, Rubio-Stipec M (2002b) Childhood asthma, chronic illness, and psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 190(5):275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ortega AN, McQuaid EL, Canino G, Goodwin RD, Fritz GK (2004b) Comorbidity of asthma and anxiety and depression in Puerto Rican children. Psychosomatics 45(2):93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ortega AN, McQuaid EL, Canino G, Ramirez R, Fritz GK, Klein RB (2003) Association of psychiatric disorders and different indicators of asthma in island Puerto Rican children. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38(4):220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perez-Perdomo R, Perez-Cardona C, Disdier-Flores O, Cintron Y (2003) Prevalence and correlates of asthma in the Puerto Rican population: behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2000. J Asthma 40(5):465–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Raby BA, Weiss ST (2001) Beta2-adrenergic receptor genetics. Curr Opin Mol Ther 3(6):554–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rand CS, Butz AM, Kolodner K, Huss K, Eggleston P, Malveaux F (2000) Emergency department visits by urban African American children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105(1 Pt 1):83–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rhodes L, Moorman JE, Mannino DM (2003) Self-reported asthma prevalence and control among adults – United States, 2001. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52(17):381–384Google Scholar
  94. Richardson LP, Lozano P, Russo J, McCauley E, Bush T, Katon W (2006) Asthma symptom burden: relationship to asthma severity and anxiety and depression symptoms. Pediatrics 118(3):1042–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Richters JE (1992) Depressed mothers as informants about their children: a critical review of the evidence of distortion. Psychol Bull 112(3):485–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Riekert KA, Butz AM, Eggleston PA, Huss K, Winkelstein M, Rand CS (2003) Caregiver-physician medication concordance and undertreatment of asthma among inner-city children. Pediatrics 111(3):e214–e220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rose D, Mannino DM, Leaderer BP (2006) Asthma prevalence among US adults, 1998–2000: role of Puerto Rican ethnicity and behavioral and geographic factors. Am J Public Health 96(5):880–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rosenstreich DL, Eggleston P, Kattan M, Baker D, Slavin RG, Gergen P, Mitchell H, McNiff-Mortimer K, Lynn H, Ownby D, Malveaux F (1997) The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N Eng J Med 336(19):1356–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Salari K, Choudhry S, Tang H, Naqvi M, Lind D, Avila PC, Coyle NE, Ung N, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres-Palacios A, Clark S, Phong A, Gomez I, Matallana H, Perez-Stable EJ, Shriver MD, Kwok PY, Sheppard D, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Risch NJ, Burchard EG, Ziv E (2005) Genetic admixture and asthma-related phenotypes in Mexican American and Puerto Rican asthmatics. Genet Epidemiol 29(1):76–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Santillan AA, Camargo CA Jr, Ramirez-Rivera A, Delgado-Enciso I, Rojas-Martinez A, Cantu-Diaz F, Barrera-Saldana HA (2003) Association between β2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms and asthma diagnosis among Mexican adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112(6):1095–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schmaling KB, McKnight PE, Afari N (2002) A prospective study of the relationship of mood and stress to pulmonary function among patients with asthma. J Asthma 39(6):501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shalowitz MU, Berry CA, Quinn KA, Wolf RL (2001) The relationship of life stressors and maternal depression to pediatric asthma morbidity in a subspecialty practice. Ambul Pediatr 1(4):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shapiro GG, Stout JW (2002) Childhood asthma in the United States: urban issues. Pediatr Pulmonol 33(1):47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sherman CB, Tollerud DJ, Heffner LJ, Speizer FE, Weiss ST (1993) Airway Responsiveness in young black and white women. Am Rev Respir Dis 148(1):98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shore SA (2006) Obesity and asthma: cause for concern. Curr Opin Pharmacol 6(3):230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Slattery MJ, Klein DF, Mannuzza S, Moulton JL 3rd, Pine DS, Klein RG (2002) Relationship between separation anxiety disorder, parental panic disorder, and atopic disorders in children: a controlled high-risk study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(8):947–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith LA, Hatcher-Ross JL, Wertheimer R, Kahn RS (2005) Rethinking race/ethnicity, income, and childhood asthma: racial/ethnic disparities concentrated among the very poor. Public Health Rep 120(2):109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stevenson LA, Gergen PJ, Hoover DR, Rosenstreich D, Mannino DM, Matte TD (2001) Sociodemographic correlates of indoor allergen sensitivity among United States children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(5):747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Suissa S, Ernst P, Benayoun S, Baltzan M, Cai B (2000) Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of death from asthma. N Eng J Med 343(5):332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sullivan SD, Weiss KB, Lynn H, Mitchell H, Kattan M, Gergen PJ, Evans R (2002) The cost-effectiveness of an inner-city asthma intervention for children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110(4):576–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sulit LG, Storfer-Isser A, Rosen CL, Kirchner HL, Redline S (2005) Associations of obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and wheezing in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(6):659–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Szefler SJ, Mitchell H, Sorkness CA, Gergen PJ, O’Connor GT, Morgan WJ, Kattan M, Pongracic JA, Teach SJ, Bloomberg GR, Eggleston PA, Gruchalla RS, Kercsmar CM, Liu AH, Wildfire JJ, Curry MD, Busse WW (2008) Management of asthma based on exhaled nitric oxid in addition to guideline-based treatment for inner-city adolescents and young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 372(9643):1065–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Teach SJ, Crain EF, Quint DM, Hylan ML, Joseph JG (2006) Improved asthma outcomes in a high-morbidity pediatric population. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160(5):535–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Troisi RJ, Willett WC, Weiss ST, Trichopoulos D, Rosner B, Speizer FE (1995) A prospective-study of diet and adult-onset asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(5):1401–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB (1999) Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. J Am Med Assoc 282(22):2131–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wakefield M, Staugas R, Ruffin R, Campbell D, Beilby J, McCaul K (1997) Risk factors for repeat attendance at hospital emergency departments among adults and children with asthma. Aust NZ J Med 27(3):277–284Google Scholar
  117. Wamboldt FS, Price MR, Hume LA, Gavin LA, Wamboldt MZ, Klinnert MD (2002) Reliability and validity of a system for coding asthma outcomes from medical records. J Asthma 39(4):29–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wamboldt MZ, Fritz G, Mansell A, McQuaid EL, Klein RB (1998) Relationship of asthma severity and psychological problems in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ward DL (1992) An international comparison of asthma morbidity and mortality in US soldiers 1984 to 1988. Chest 101:613–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Warman K, Silver EJ, Wood PR (2006) Asthma risk factor assessment: what are the needs of inner-city families? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 97(1 Suppl):S11–S15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weil CM, Wade SL, Bauman LJ, Lynn H, Mitchell H, Lavigne J (1999) The relationship between psychosocial factors andasthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics 104(6):1274–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Werk LN, Steinbach S, Adams WG, Bauchner H (2000) Beliefs about diagnosing asthma in young children. Pediatrics 105(3 Pt 1):585–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wood PR, Hidalgo HA, Prihoda TJ, Kromer ME (1993) Hispanic children with asthma: morbidity. Pediatrics 91(1):62–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wright RJ (2006) Health effects of socially toxic neighborhoods: the violence and urban asthma paradigm. Clin Chest Med 27(3):413–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wright RJ, Cohen S, Carey V, Weiss ST, Gold DR (2002) Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: a prospective birth-cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165(3):358–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wright RJ, Mitchell H, Visness CM, Cohen S, Stout J, Evans R, Gold DR (2004) Community violence and asthma morbidity: the Inner-City Asthma Study. Am J Public Health 94(4):625–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wright RJ, Steinbach SF (2001) Violence: an unrecognizable environmental exposure that may contribute to greater asthma morbidity in high risk inner-city-populations. Environ Health Perspect 109:1085–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Ortega
    • 1
  • Daphne Koinis-Mitchell
  • Peter J. Gergen
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations