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Roles of Proteases during Invasion and Egress by Plasmodium and Toxoplasma

  • Timothy J. Dowse
  • Konstantinos Koussis
  • Michael J. Blackman
  • Dominique Soldati-Favre
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 47)

Abstract

Apicomplexan pathogens replicate exclusively within the confines of a host cell. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of which have long been considered to have potential as targets of drug or vaccine-based therapies. In this chapter the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of parasite proteolytic enzymes in these critical steps in the life cycle of two clinically important apicomplexan genera, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. At least three distinct proteases of the cysteine mechanistic class have been implicated in egress of the malaria parasite from cells of its vertebrate and insect host. In contrast, the bulk of the evidence indicates a prime role for serine proteases of the subtilisin and rhomboid families in invasion by both parasites. Whereas proteases involved in egress may function predominantly to degrade host cell structures, proteases involved in invasion probably act primarily as maturases and’ sheddases’, required to activate and ultimately remove ligands involved in interactions with the host cell.

Keywords

Plasmodium Falciparum Cysteine Protease Toxoplasma Gondii Merozoite Surface Protein Apical Membrane Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy J. Dowse
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Koussis
    • 2
  • Michael J. Blackman
    • 2
  • Dominique Soldati-Favre
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesImperial CollegeLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of ParasitologyNational Institute for Medical ResearchLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesSir Alexander Fleming BuildingLondonUK
  4. 4.Département de Microbiologie et Medecine Moléculaire, Falculté de MedecineUniversité de Genève, CMUGenèveSwitzerland

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