Advertisement

Audio Coding Standard Overview: MPEG4-AAC, HE-AAC, and HE-AAC V2

  • Yujie Gao

21.1 Introduction

Nowadays, Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) becomes one of the most popularly adopted audio formats in mobile society. In this chapter, brief history of MPEG4 AAC decoder family will be introduced, followed by more details for MPEG4-AAC, HE-AAC, and HE-AAC V2 systems.

In April 1997, MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding (MPEG-2 AAC) [1] compressing algorithm, which takes advantages of some new spectrum processing and compression tools like temporal noise shaping (TNS) [1, 2], became an international standard. Compared to previously existing audio compressing algorithms, the new standard provides outstanding audio quality and exceptional compression ratio and thus achieves lower bit rate in the encoded bitstreams, and gradually becomes one of the new choices of audio codec standards for broadcasting, internet services, and mobile applications.

MPEG-4 AAC standard [2] was adopted by the MPEG community in 1999. It is based on MPEG-2 AAC standard and keeps maximum compatibility with...

Keywords

Side Information Audio Quality Error Resilience Inverse Quantization Decoder Side 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 MPEG International Standard, “Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)”, ISO/IEC IS 13818-7:2003 Subpart 7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 MPEG International Standard, “General Audio Coding (GA) — AAC, TwinQV, BSAC”, ISO/IEC IS 14496-3:2005(E) Subpart 4.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Ehret, M. Dietz, K. Kjörling, “State-of-the-Art Audio Coding for Broadcasting and Mobile Applications”, in 114th AES Convention, Amsterdam, March 22–25, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 MPEG International Standard, “Technical Description of Parametric Coding for High Quality Audio”, ISO/IEC IS 14496-3:2005(E) Subpart 8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 MPEG International Standard, “Main”, ISO/IEC IS 14496-3:2005(E) Subpart 1.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Brandenburg, “Perceptual Coding of High Quality Digital Audio”, in Applications of Digital Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, M. Kahrs, K. Brandenburg, Eds., Chapter 2, pp. 39–83. Kluwer, Boston, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Painter, A. Spanias, “Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio”, Proceedings of IEEE, 88 (4), pp. 451–513, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 MPEG-4, “Audio Verification Test Results: Audio on the Internet”, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 N2425, Oct 1998.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gilbert A. Soulodre, Theodore Grusec, Michel Lavoie, Louis Thibault, “Subjective Evaluation of State-of-the-Art 2-Channel Audio Codecs”, in 104th AES Convention, Amsterdam, May 16–19, 1998.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO/IEC “Coding of Audio-visual Objects — Part 1: Systems (MPEG-4 Systems, 2nd edition)”, ISO/IEC IS 14496-1:2001, 1999.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Herpel, G. Franceschini, D. Singer, “Transporting and Storing MPEG-4 Content”, in the MPEG-4 Book, F. Pereira, T. Ebrahimi, Eds., Chapter 7. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 2002.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gi Lee, “A New Algorithm to Compute the Discrete Cosine Transform”, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 32(6), pp. 1243–1245, 1984.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, Wen-Chieh Lee, “A Unified Fast Algorithm for Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Current Audio Coding Standards”, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 47(12), pp. 1061–1075, 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.H. Fan, V.K. Madisetti, R.M. Mersereau, “On Fast Algorithms for Computing the Inverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 6(3), pp. 61–64, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V.B. Britanak, K.R. Rao, “An Efficient Implementation of the Forward and Inverse MDCT in MPEG Audio Coding”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 8(2), pp. 48–51, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martin Wolters, Kristofer Kjörling, Daniel Homm, Heiko Purnhagen, “A Closer Look into MPEG-4 High Efficiency AAC”, in 115th AES Convention, New York, Oct 10–13, 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martin Dietz, Lars Liljeryd, Kristofer Kjörling, Oliver Kunz, “Spectral Band Replication, a Novel Approach in Audio Coding”, in 112th AES Convention, Munich, May 10–13, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andreas Ehret, Kristofer Kjörling, Jonas Rödén, Heiko Purnhagen, Holger Hörich, “aacPlus, Only a Low-bitrate Codec?”, in 117th AES Convention, San Francisco, Oct 28–31, 2004.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jeroen Breebaart, Steven van de Par, Armin Kohlrausch, Erik Schuijers, “High-Quality Parametric Spatial Audio Coding at Low Bitrates”, in 116th AES Convention, Berlin, May 8–11, 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Erik Schuijers, Jeroen Breebaart, Heiko Purnhagen, Jonas Engdegård, “Low Complexity Parametric Stereo Coding”, in 116th AES Convention, Berlin, May 8–11, 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jonas Engdegård, Heiko Purnhagen, Jonas Rödén, Lars Liljeryd, “Synthetic Ambience in Parametric Stereo Coding”, in 116th AES Convention, Berlin, May 8–11, 2004.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jeroen Breebaart, Christof Faller, “MPEG Surround”, in Spatial Audio Processing: MPEG Surround and Other Applications, Chapter 6. Wiley, England, Jan 2008.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Faller, F. Baumgarte, “Binaural Cue Coding Applied to Stereo and Multi-channel Audio Compression”, in 112th AES Convention, Munich, May 10–13, 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Herre, K. Kjoerling, J. Breebaart, C. Faller, S. Disch, H. Purnhagen, J. Koppens, J. Hilpert, J. Roeden, W. Oomen, K. Linzmeier, K.S. Chong, “Mpeg Surround — the iso/mpeg Standard for Efficient and Compatible Multi-channel Audio Coding,” in Preprint 122nd AES Convention, May 2007.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Faller, “Parametric Multi-channel Audio Coding: Synthesis of Coherence Cues”, IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Proceedings, 14(1), pp. 299–310, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Herre, C. Faller, C. Ertel, J. Hilpert, A. Hoelzer, C. Spenger, “MP3 Surround: Efficient and Compatible Coding of Multi-channel audio”, in Preprint 116th AES Convention, May 2004.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Faller, “Coding of Spatial Audio Compatible with Different Playback Formats”, in Preprint 117th AES Convention, Oct 2004.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Breebaart, G. Hotho, J. Koppens, E. Schuijers, W. Oomen, and S. van de Par, “Background, Concept and Architecture for the Recent mpeg Surround Standard on Multi-channel Audio Compression,” Journal of Audio Engineering Society, 55(5), pp. 331–351, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yujie Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Qualcomm Inc.San DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations