“Overview of the Microbial Characteristics, Taxonomy, and Epidemiology of Acinetobacter

  • Harald Seifert
  • Lenie Dijkshoorn
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Microbial Characteristics

Bacteria belonging to the genus Acinetobacter share the following characteristics that allow for presumptive identification at the genus level: they are gram-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, nonmotile, nonfermenting coccobacilli. Gram staining shows short, plump, Gram-negative rods that are difficult to destain and may therefore be misidentified as either Gram-negative or Gram-positive cocci (hence the former designation Mimae). Most Acinetobacter strains grow between 20°C and 37°C with most strains having an optimum at 33–35°C. Acinetobacter species of human origin grow well on solid media that are routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories such as sheep blood agar or tryptic soy agar at 37°C incubation temperature. Strains of some species grow at higher temperatures (e.g., growth at 44°C is a characteristic feature of A. baumannii). Acinetobactersform smooth, sometimes mucoid, grayish-white colonies;...


Species Identification Genomic Species Epidemic Spread Acinetobacter Species Diagnostic Microbiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Alexandr Nemec is gratefully acknowledged for critical reading of the text, and Danuta Sefanik, Tanny van der Reijden, and Beppie van Strijen for technical support.


  1. Allen, K. D., and H. T. Green. 1987. Hospital outbreak of multi-resistant Acinetobacter anitratus: an airborne mode of spread? J. Hosp. Infect. 9:110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anstey, N. M., B. J. Currie, M. Hassell, D. Palmer, B. Dwyer, and H. Seifert. 2002. Community-acquired bacteremic Acinetobacter pneumonia in tropical Australia is caused by diverse strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, with carriage in the throat in at-risk groups. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:685–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Audureau, A. 1940. Étude du genre Moraxella. Ann. Inst. Pasteur. 64:126–166.Google Scholar
  4. Bartual, S. G., H. Seifert, C. Hippler., M. A. Luzon, H. Wisplinghoff, and F. Rodriguez-Valera. 2005. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for characterization of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4382–4390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumann, P. 1968. Isolation of Acinetobacter from soil and water. J. Bacteriol. 96:39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumann, P., M. Doudoroff, and R. Y. Stanier. 1968. A study of the Moraxella group. II. Oxidative-negative species (genus Acinetobacter). J. Bacteriol. 95:1520–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beijerinck, M. W. 1911. Pigmenten als oxydatieproducten gevormd door bacteriën. Versl. Koninklijke Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam 19:1092–1103Google Scholar
  8. Bergogne-Berezin, E., and K. J. Towner. 1996. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological features. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:148–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berlau, J., H. Aucken, H. Malnick, and T. Pitt. 1999a. Distribution of Acinetobacter species on skin of healthy humans. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:179–183.Google Scholar
  10. Berlau, J., H. M. Aucken, E. Houang, and T. L. Pitt. 1999b. Isolation of Acinetobacter spp. including A. baumannii from vegetables: implications for hospital-acquired infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 42:201–204.Google Scholar
  11. Bernards, A. T., L. Dijkshoorn, J. Van der Toorn, B. R. Bochner, and C. P. van Boven. 1995. Phenotypic characterisation of Acinetobacter strains of 13 DNA-DNA hybridisation groups by means of the biolog system. J. Med. Microbiol. 42:113–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernards, A. T., J. van der Toorn, C. P. van Boven, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1996. Evaluation of the ability of a commercial system to identify Acinetobacter genomic species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernards, A. T., H. M. Frenay, B. T. Lim, W. D. Hendriks, L. Dijkshoorn, and C. P. van Boven. 1998. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii: an unexpected difference in epidemiologic behavior. Am. J. Infect. Control 26:544–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bou, G., G. Cervero, M. A. Dominguez, C. Quereda, and J. Martinez-Beltran. 2000. PCR-based DNA fingerprinting (REP-PCR, AP-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis characterization of a nosocomial outbreak caused by imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6:635–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouvet, P. J., and P. A. Grimont. 1986. Taxonomy of the genus Acinetobacter with the recognition of Acinetobacter baumannii sp. nov., Acinetobacter haemolyticus sp. nov., Acinetobacter johnsonii sp. nov., and Acinetobacter junii sp. nov., and emended descripition of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter lwoffii. Int. J.Syst. Bacteriol. 36:228–240.Google Scholar
  16. Bouvet, P. J., and P. A. Grimont. 1987. Identification and biotyping of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 138:569–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouvet, P. J., and S. Jeanjean. 1989. Delineation of new proteolytic genomic species in the genus Acinetobacter. Res. Microbiol. 140:291–299.Google Scholar
  18. Brenwald, N. P., and A. P. Fraise. 2003. Triclosan resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J. Hosp. Infect. 55:141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brisou, J. 1953. Essai sur la systématique du genre Achromobacter. Ann. Inst. Pasteur. 84:812–814.Google Scholar
  20. Brisou, J., and A. R. Prévot. 1954. Études de la systématique bactérienne. X. Révision des espèces réunies dans le genre Achromobacter. Ann. Inst. Past. 86:722–728.Google Scholar
  21. Brisse, S., D. Milatovic, A. C. Fluit, K. Kusters, A. Toelstra, J. Verhoef, and F. J. Schmitz. 2000. Molecular surveillance of European quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. using automated ribotyping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:3636–3645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carr, E. L., P. Kampfer, B. K. Patel, V. Gurtler, and R. J. Seviour. 2003. Seven novel species of Acinetobacter isolated from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:953–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Catalano, M., L. S. Quelle, P. E. Jeric, A. Di Martino, and S. M. Maimone. 1999. Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on bed rails during an outbreak and during sporadic cases. J. Hosp. Infect. 42:27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang, H. C., Y. F. Wei, L. Dijkshoorn, M. Vaneechoutte, C. T. Tang, and T. C. Chang. 2005. Species-level identification of isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:1632–1639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chu, Y. W., C. M. Leung, E. T. Houang, K. C. Ng, C. B. Leung, H. Y. Leung, and A. F. Cheng. 1999. Skin carriage of acinetobacters in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2962–2967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Coelho, J. M., J. F. Turton, M. E. Kaufmann, J. Glover, N. Woodford, M. Warner, M. F. Palepou, R. Pike, T. L. Pitt, B. C. Patel, and D. M. Livermore. 2006. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clones at multiple hospitals in London and Southeast England. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 3623–3627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Colwell, R. R. 1968. In: Culture collections of microorganisms. Proceedings of the international conference on culture collections, Tokyo. ed. H. Iizuka, T. Hasegawa, Baltimore: University Press. Oct. 7–11:421–436.Google Scholar
  28. Cowan, S. T. 1965. Principles and practice of bacterial taxonomy – a forward look. J. Gen. Microbiol. 39:148–159.Google Scholar
  29. D’Agata, E. M., V. Thayer, and W. Schaffner. 2000. An outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii: the importance of cross-transmission. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 21:588–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Da Silva, G. J., L. Dijkshoorn, T. van der Reijden, B. van Strijen, and A. Duarte. 2007. Identification of widespread, closely related Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Portugal as a subgroup of European clone II. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:190–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, K. A., K. A. Moran, C. K. McAllister, and P. J. Gray. 2005. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter extremity infections in soldiers. Emerg Infect Dis. 11:1218–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. DeBord, G. G. 1939. Organisms invalidating the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae by the smear method. J. Bacteriol. 38:119–120.Google Scholar
  33. DeBord, G. G. 1942. Descriptions of Mimeae trib. nov. with three genera and three species and two new species of Neisseria from conjunctivitis and vaginitis. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 16:471–480.Google Scholar
  34. Dijkshoorn, L., W. van Vianen, J. E. Degener, and M. F. Michel. 1987. Typing of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains isolated from hospital patients by cell envelope protein profiles. Epidemiol. Infect. 99:659–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dijkshoorn, L., J. L. Wubbels, A. J. Beunders, J. E. Degener, A. L. Box, and M. F. Michel. 1989. Use of protein profiles to identify Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in a respiratory care unit. J. Clin. Pathol. 42:853–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dijkshoorn, L., H. M. Aucken, P. Gerner-Smidt, M. E. Kaufmann, J. Ursing, and T. L. Pitt. 1993. Correlation of typing methods for Acinetobacter isolates from hospital outbreaks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:702–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dijkshoorn, L., H. Aucken, P. Gerner-Smidt, P. Janssen, M. E. Kaufmann, J. Garaizar, J. Ursing, and T. L. Pitt. 1996. Comparison of outbreak and non-outbreak Acinetobacter baumannii strains by genotypic and phenotypic methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1519–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dijkshoorn, L., B. van Harsselaar, I. Tjernberg, P. J. Bouvet, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1998. Evaluation of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis for identification of Acinetobacter genomic species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21:33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dijkshoorn, L., E. van Aken, L. Shunburne, T. J. van der Reijden, A. T. Bernards, A. Nemec, and K. J. Towner. 2005. Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. in faecal samples from non-hospitalised individuals. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dijkshoorn, L., and A. Nemec. 2008. The diversity of the genus Acinetobacter. In U. Gerischer (ed.), Acinetobacter Molecular Microbiology. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press, pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  41. Dobrewski, R., E. Savov, A. T. Bernards, M. van den Barselaar, P. Nordmann, P. J. van den Broek, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2006. Genotypic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a Bulgarian hospital. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:1135–1137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dolzani, L., E. Tonin, C. Lagatolla, L. Prandin, and C. Monti-Bragadin. 1995. Identification of Acinetobacter isolates in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex by restriction analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic-spacer sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:1108–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dortet, L., P. Legrand, C. J. Soussy, and V. Cattoir. 2006. Bacterial identification, clinical significance, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Acinetobacter ursingii and Acinetobacter schindleri, two frequently misidentified opportunistic pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:4471–4478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ecker, J. A., C. Massire, T. A. Hall, R. Ranken, T. T. Pennella, I. C. Agasino, L. B. Blyn, S. A. Hofstadler, T. P. Endy, P. T. Scott, L. Lindler, T. Hamilton, C. Gaddy, K. Snow, M. Pe, J. Fishbain, D. Craft, G. Deye, S. Riddell, E. Milstrey, B. Petruccelli, S. Brisse, V. Harpin, A. Schink, D. J. Ecker, R. Sampath, and M. W. Eshoo. 2006. Identification of Acinetobacter species and genotyping of Acinetobacter baumannii by multilocus PCR and mass spectrometry. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:2921–2932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ehrenstein, B., A. T. Bernards, L. Dijkshoorn, P. Gerner-Smidt, K. J. Towner, P. J. Bouvet, F. D. Daschner, and H. Grundmann. 1996. Acinetobacter species identification by using tRNA spacer fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:2414–2420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fournier, P. E., and H. Richet. 2006. The epidemiology and control of Acinetobacter baumannii in health care facilities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:692–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Francey, T., F. Gaschen, J. Nicolet, and A. P. Burnens. 2000. The role of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen for dogs and cats in an intensive care unit. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 14:177–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gerner-Smidt, P., I. Tjernberg, and J. Ursing. 1991. Reliability of phenotypic tests for identification of Acinetobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gerner-Smidt, P. 1992. Ribotyping of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:2680–2685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gerner-Smidt, P., and I. Tjernberg. 1993. Acinetobacter in Denmark: II. Molecular studies of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. APMIS. 101:826–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gevers, D., F. M. Cohan, J. G. Lawrence, B. G. Spratt, T. Coenye, E. J. Feil, E. Stackebrandt, Y. Van de Peer, P. Vandamme, F. L. Thompson, and J. Swings J. 2005. Opinion: Re-evaluating prokaryotic species. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3:733–739.Google Scholar
  52. Gouby, A., M. J. Carles-Nurit, N. Bouziges, G. Bourg, R. Mesnard, and P. J. Bouvet. 1992. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of hospital outbreaks of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1588–1591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gräser, Y., I. Klare, E. Halle, R. Gantenberg, P. Buchholz, H. D. Jacobi, W. Presber, and G. Schönian. 1993. Epidemiological study of an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak by using polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:2417–2420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Griffith, M. E., J. M. Ceremuga, M. W. Ellis, C. H. Guymon, D. R. Hospenthal, and C. K. Murray. 2006. Acinetobacter skin colonization of US army soldiers. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 27:659–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grundmann, H. J., K. J. Towner, L. Dijkshoorn, P. Gerner-Smidt, M. Maher, H. Seifert, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1997. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:3071–3077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hartstein, A. I., V. H. Morthland, J. W. Rourke Jr., J. Freeman, S. Garber, R. Sykes, and A. L. Rashad. 1990. Plasmid DNA fingerprinting of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus from intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 11:531–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heinemann, B., H. Wisplinghoff, M. Edmond, and H. Seifert. 2000. Comparative activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against epidemiologically defined Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2211–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Henriksen, S. D. 1973. Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and the Mimeae. Bacteriol. Rev. 37:522–561.Google Scholar
  59. Higgins P.G., H. Wisplinghoff, O. Krut, and H. Seifert. 2007. A PCR-based method to differentiate between Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:1199–1201.Google Scholar
  60. Horrevorts, A., K. Bergman, L. Kollee, I. Breuker, I. Tjernberg, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1995. Clinical and epidemiological investigations of Acinetobacter genomospecies 3 in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:1567–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Houang, E. T., Y. W. Chu, C. M. Leung, K. Y. Chu, J. Berlau, K. C. Ng, and A. F. Cheng. 2001. Epidemiology and infection control implications of Acinetobacter spp. in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:228–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Huys, G., M. Cnockaert, A. Nemec, L. Dijkshoorn, S. Brisse, M. Vaneechoutte, and J. Swings. 2005. Repetitive-DNA-element PCR fingerprinting and antibiotic resistance of pan-European multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone III strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:851–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Janssen P., and L. Dijkshoorn. 1996. High resolution DNA fingerprinting of Acinetobacter outbreak strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 142:191–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Janssen, P., R. Coopman, G. Huys, J. Swings, M. Bleeker, P. Vos, M. Zabeau, and K. Kersters. 1996. Evaluation of the DNA fingerprinting method AFLP as an new tool in bacterial taxonomy. Microbiology 142:1881–1893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Janssen, P., K. Maquelin, R. Coopman, I. Tjernberg, P. Bouvet, K. Kersters, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1997. Discrimination of Acinetobacter genomic species by AFLP fingerprinting. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:1179–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jawad, A., P. M. Hawkey, J. Heritage, and A. M. Snelling. 1994. Description of Leeds Acinetobacter Medium, a new selective and differential medium for isolation of clinically important Acinetobacter spp., and comparison with Herellea agar and Holton's agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:2353–2358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jawad, A., J. Heritage, A. M. Snelling, D. M. Gascoyne-Binzi, and P. M. Hawkey. 1996. Influence of relative humidity and suspending menstrua on survival of Acinetobacter spp. on dry surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:2881–2887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jawad, A., H. Seifert, A. M. Snelling, J. Heritage, and P. M. Hawkey. 1998. Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on dry surfaces: comparison of outbreak and sporadic isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:1938–1941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnson, J. L., R. S. Anderson, and E. J. Ordal. 1970. Nucleic acid homologies among oxidase negative Moraxella species. J. Bacteriol. 101:568–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Juni, E. 1972. Interspecies transformation of Acinetobacter: genetic evidence for a ubiquitous genus. J. Bacteriol. 112:917–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Juni, E. 2005. Genus II. Acinetobacter Brisou and Prévot 1954. In D.J. Brenner, N.R. Krieg, and J.T. Staley (eds.), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. East Lansing: Bergey's Manual Trust, pp. 425–437.Google Scholar
  72. Kämpfer, P., I. Tjernberg, and J. Ursing. 1993. Numerical classification and identification of Acinetobacter genomic species. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75:259–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Koeleman, J. G., J. Stoof, D. J. Biesmans, P. H. Savelkoul, and C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1998. Comparison of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for identification of Acinetobacter genomic species and typing of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:2522–2529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Koeleman, J. G., J. Stoof., M. W. Van Der Bijl, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and P. H. Savelkoul. 2001a. Identification of epidemic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii by integrase gene PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:8–13.Google Scholar
  75. Koeleman, J. G., M. W. van der Bijl, J. Stoof, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and P. H. Savelkoul. 2001b. Antibiotic resistance is a major risk factor for epidemic behavior of Acinetobacter baumannii. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 22:284–288.Google Scholar
  76. Krawczyk, B., K. Lewandowski, and J. Kur. 2002. Comparative studies of the Acinetobacter genus and the species identification method based on the recA sequences. Mol. Cell Probes 16:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. La Scola, B., and D. Raoult. 2004. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1671–1673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. La Scola, B., V. A. Gundi, A. Khamis, and D. Raoult. 2006. Sequencing of the rpoB gene and flanking spacers for molecular identification of Acinetobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:827–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lagatolla, C., A. Lavenia, E. Tonin, C. Monti-Bragadin, and L. Dolzani. 1998. Characterization of oligonucleotide probes for the identification of Acinetobacter spp., A. baumannii and Acinetobacter genomic species 3. Res. Microbiol. 149:557–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lapage, S. P., and P. H. A. Sneath. 1992. International code of nomenclature of bacteria, and Statutes of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, and Statutes of the Bacterology and Applied Microbiology Section of the International Union of Microbiological Societies : bacteriological code. Washington, D.C.: Published for the International Union of Microbiological Societies by American Society for Microbiology.Google Scholar
  81. Lautrop, H. 1974. Genus III. Acinetobacter Brisou and Prévot 1954. In Buchanan, R.E., and Gibbons, N.E. (eds.), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co, pp. 436–438.Google Scholar
  82. Lemoigne, M., H. Girard, and J. Jacobelli. 1952. Bactérie du sol utilisant facilement le 2-3-butanediol. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 82:389–398.Google Scholar
  83. Lessel, E. F. 1971. International committee on nomenclature of bacteria. Subcommittee on nomenclature of Moraxella and Allied Bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 21:213–214.Google Scholar
  84. Leung, W. S., C. M. Chu, K. Y. Tsang, F. H. Lo, K. F. Lo, and P. L. Ho. 2006. Fulminant community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia as a distinct clinical syndrome. Chest. 129:102–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lim, Y. M., K. S. Shin, and J. Kim. 2007. Distinct antimicrobial resistance pattern and antimicrobial resistance-harboring genes according to genomic species of Acinetobacter isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:902–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Loubinoux, J., L. Mihaila-Amrouche, A. Le Fleche, E. Pigne, G. Huchon, P. A. Grimont, and A. Bouvet. 2003. Bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter ursingii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1337–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Maiden, M. C., J. A. Bygraves, E. Feil, G. Morelli, J. E. Russell, R. Urwin, Q. Zhang, J. Zhou, K. Zurth, D. A. Caugant, I. M. Feavers, M. Achtman, and B. G. Spratt. 1998. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 95:3140–3145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Manikal, V. M., D. Landman, G. Saurina, E. Oydna, H. Lal, and J. Quale. 2000. Endemic carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species in Brooklyn, New York: citywide prevalence, interinstitutional spread, and relation to antibiotic usage. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 101–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mannheim, W., and W. Stenzel. 1962. Zur Systematik der obligat aeroben gram-negativen Diplobakterien des Menschen. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Abt. 1 Orig. 198:55–83.Google Scholar
  90. Marais, E., G. de Jong, V. Ferraz, B. Maloba, and A. G. Duse. 2004. Interhospital transfer of pan-resistant Acinetobacter strains in Johannesburg, South Africa. Am. J. Infect. Control. 32: 278–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Marchaim, D., S. Navon-Venezia, D. Schwartz, J. Tarabeia, I. Fefer, M. J. Schwaber, and Y. Carmeli. 2007. Surveillance cultures and duration of carriage of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:1551–1555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. McDonald, L.C., S. N. Banerjee, and W. R. Jarvis. 1999. Seasonal variation of Acinetobacter infections: 1987–1996. Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Clin Infect Dis. 29:1133–1137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Musa, E. K., N. Desai, and M. W. Casewell. 1990. The survival of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus inoculated on fingertips and on formica. J. Hosp. Infect. 15:219–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Nemec, A., L. Janda, O. Melter, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1999. Genotypic and phenotypic similarity of multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in the Czech Republic. J. Med. Microbiol. 48:287–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nemec, A., L. Dijkshoorn, and P. Jezek. 2000. Recognition of two novel phenons of the genus Acinetobacter among non-glucose-acidifying isolates from human specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:3937–3941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nemec, A., T. De Baere, I. Tjernberg, M. Vaneechoutte, T. J. van der Reijden, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2001. Acinetobacter ursingii sp. nov. and Acinetobacter schindleri sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:1891–1899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Nemec, A., L. Dijkshoorn, I. Cleenwerck, T. De Baere, D. Janssens, T. J. van der Reijden, P. Jezek, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2003. Acinetobacter parvus sp. nov., a small-colony-forming species isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:1563–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Nemec, A., L. Dijkshoorn, and T. J. van der Reijden. 2004. Long-term predominance of two pan-European clones among multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the Czech Republic. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nishimura, Y., T. Ino, and H. Iizuka. 1988. Acinetobacter radioresistens sp. nov. isolated from cotton and soil. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 209–211.Google Scholar
  100. Ochman, H., and A. C. Wilson. 1987. Evolution in bacteria: evidence for a universal substitution rate in cellular genomes. J. Mol. Evol. 26:74–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Piéchaud, D., M. Piéchaud, and L. Second. 1951. Etude de 26 souches de Moraxella lwoffi. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 80:97–99.Google Scholar
  102. Retailliau, H. F., A. W. Hightower, R. E. Dixon, and J. R. Allen. 1979. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a nosocomial pathogen with an unusual seasonal pattern. J. Infect. Dis. 139:371–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rossau, R., A. van Landschoot, M. Gillis, and J. de Ley. 1991. Taxonomy of Moraxellaceae fam. nov., a new bacterial family to accomodate the genera Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter and related organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:310–319.Google Scholar
  104. Rossello-Mora, R., R. Amann. 2001. The species concept for prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25:39–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Schaub, I. G., and F. D. Hauber. 1948. A biochemical and serological study of a group of identical unidentifiable gram-negative bacilli from human sources. J. Bacteriol. 56:379–385.Google Scholar
  106. Schreckenberger, P. C, M. I. Daneshvar, and D. G. Hollis. 2007. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Chryseobacterium, Moraxella, and other nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, J. H. Jorgensen, M. L. Laudry, and M.A. Pfaller (eds.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 770–802.Google Scholar
  107. Scott, P., G. Deye, A. Srinivasan, C. Murray, K. Moran, E. Hulten, J. Fishbain, D. Craft, S. Riddell, L. Lindler, J. Mancuso, E. Milstrey, C. T. Bautista, J. Patel, A. Ewell, T. Hamilton, C. Gaddy, M. Tenney, G. Christopher, K. Petersen, T. Endy, and B. Petruccelli. 2007. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex infection in the US military health care system associated with military operations in Iraq. Clin Infect Dis. 44:1577–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Seifert, H., R. Baginski, A. Schulze, and G. Pulverer. 1993. The distribution of Acinetobacter species in clinical culture materials. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279:544–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Seifert, H., A. Strate, A. Schulze, and G. Pulverer. 1994a. Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter species other than Acinetobacter baumannii. Infection. 22: 379–385.Google Scholar
  110. Seifert, H., B. Boullion, A. Schulze, and G. Pulverer. 1994b. Plasmid DNA profiles of Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical application in a complex endemic setting. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 15:520–528.Google Scholar
  111. Seifert, H., A. Schulze, R. Baginski, and G. Pulverer. 1994c. Plasmid DNA fingerprinting of Acinetobacter species other than Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:82–86.Google Scholar
  112. Seifert, H., and P. Gerner-Smidt. 1995. Comparison of ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of Acinetobacter isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:1402–1407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Seifert, H., L. Dijkshoorn, P. Gerner-Smidt, N. Pelzer, I. Tjernberg, and M. Vaneechoutte. 1997. Distribution of Acinetobacter species on human skin: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2819–2825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Seifert, H., L. Dolzani, R. Bressan, T. van der Reijden, B. van Strijen, D. Stefanik, H. Heersma, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2005. Standardization and interlaboratory reproducibility assessment of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-generated fingerprints of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4328–4335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Seifert, H., M. Horstkotte, and H. Geiss. 2006. Evaluation of automated identification systems for identification of Acinetobacter species. Abstr. 7th International Symposium on the Biology of Acinetobacter, abstr. O3, November 8–10, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  116. Seifert, H., L. Dijkshoorn, J. Gielen, A. Nemec, K. Osterhage, M. Erhard, O. Krut. 2007. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Acinetobacter species. Abstr. 107th ASM General Meeting, abstr. C-172, May 21–25, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  117. Silbert, S., M. A. Pfaller, R. J. Hollis, A. L. Barth, and H.S. Sader. 2004. Evaluation of three molecular typing techniques for nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25:847–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Skerman, V. B. D., V. McGowan, and P.H.A. Sneath, eds. 1980. Approved list of bacterial names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:225–420.Google Scholar
  119. Snelling, A. M., P. Gerner-Smidt, P. M. Hawkey, J. Heritage, P. Parnell, C. Porter, A. R. Bodenham, and T. Inglis. 1996. Validation of use of whole-cell repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) for typing strains belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and application of the method to the investigation of a hospital outbreak. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1193–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stackebrandt, E., and B. M. Goebel. 1994. Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:846–849.Google Scholar
  121. Stackebrandt, E., and J. Evers. 2006. Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiology Today:152–155.Google Scholar
  122. Suller, M. T., and A. D. Russell. 1999. Antibiotic and biocide resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. J. Hosp. Infect. 43:281–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Thomas, L., J. Y. Maillard, R. J. Lambert, and A. D. Russell. 2000. Development of resistance to chlorhexidine diacetate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the effect of a “residual” concentration. J. Hosp. Infect. 46:297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Tjernberg, I., and J. Ursing. 1989. Clinical strains of Acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization. APMIS. 97:595–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Turton, J. F., N. Woodford, J. Glover, S. Yarde, M. E. Kaufmann, and T. L. Pitt. 2006. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by detection of the blaOXA-51-like carbapenemase gene intrinsic to this species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:2974–2976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. van Dessel, H., T. E. Kamp-Hopmans, A. C. Fluit, S. Brisse, A. M. de Smet, L. Dijkshoorn, A. Troelstra, J. Verhoef, and E. M. Mascini. 2002. Outbreak of a susceptible strain of Acinetobacter species 13 (sensu Tjernberg and Ursing) in an adult neurosurgical intensive care unit. J. Hosp. Infect. 51:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Vandamme, P., B. Pot, M. Gillis, P. de Vos, K. Kersters, and J. Swings. 1996. Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol. Rev. 60:407–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Vaneechoutte, M., D. M. Young, L. N. Ornston, T. De Baere, A. Nemec, T. van Der Reijden, E. Carr, I. Tjernberg, and L. Dijkshoorn. 2006. Naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 belongs to the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:932–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Vaneechoutte, M., L. Dijkshoorn, I. Tjernberg, A. Elaichouni, P. de Vos, G. Claeys, and G. Verschraegen. 1995. Identification of Acinetobacter genomic species by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Vaneechoutte, M., I. Tjernberg, F. Baldi, M. Pepi, R. Fani, E. R. Sullivan, J. van der Toorn, and L. Dijkshoorn. 1999. Oil-degrading Acinetobacter strain RAG-1 and strains described as ‘Acinetobacter venetianus sp. nov.’ belong to the same genomic species. Res. Microbiol. 150:69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Vaneechoutte, M., L. A. Devriese, L. Dijkshoorn, B. Lamote, P. Deprez, G. Verschraegen, and F. Haesebrouck. 2000. Acinetobacter baumannii-infected vascular catheters collected from horses in an equine clinic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:4280–4281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Vaneechoutte, M., and T. De Baere. 2008. Taxonomy of the genus Acinetobacter, based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. In U. Gerischer (ed.), Acinetobacter Molecular Microbiology. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press, pp. 35–60.Google Scholar
  133. Villers, D., E. Espaze, M. Coste-Burel, F. Giauffret, E. Ninin, F. Nicolas, and H. Richet. 1998. Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections: microbiological and clinical epidemiology. Ann. Intern. Med. 129:182–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. von Lingelsheim, W. 1908. Beiträge zur Epidemiologie der epidemischen Genickstarre nach den Ergebnissen der letzten Jahre. Z. Hyg. Infektionskrankheiten. 59:457–460.Google Scholar
  135. Vos, P., R. Hogers, M. Bleeker, M. Reijans, T. van de Lee, M. Hornes, A. Frijters, J. Pot, J. Peleman, M. Kuiper, et al. 1995. AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:4407–4414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wang, J. T., L. C. McDonald, S. C. Chang, and M. Ho. 2002. Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in adult patients in Taiwan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:1526–1529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wayne, L. G., D. J. Brenner, R. R. Colwell, P. A. D. Grimont, O. Kandler, M. I. Krichevsky, L. H. Moore, W. E. C. Moore, R. G. E. Murray, E. Stackebrandt, M. P. Starr, and H. G. Truper. 1987. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37:463–464.Google Scholar
  138. Wisplinghoff, H., M. B. Edmond, M. A. Pfaller, R. N. Jones, R. P. Wenzel, and H. Seifert. 2000. Nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter species in United States hospitals: clinical features, molecular epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:690–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wisplinghoff, H., R. Schmitt, A. Wohrmann, D. Stefanik, and H. Seifert. 2007. Resistance to disinfectants in epidemiologically defined clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Hosp. Infect. 66:174–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wroblewska, M. M., L. Dijkshoorn, H. Marchel, M. Van den Barselaar, E. Swoboda-Kopec, P. J. van den Broek, and M. Luczak. 2004. Outbreak of nosocomial meningitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in neurosurgical patients. J. Hosp. Infect. 57:300–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Yamamoto, S., P. J. Bouvet, and S. Harayama. 1999. Phylogenetic structures of the genus Acinetobacter based on gyrB sequences: comparison with the grouping by DNA-DNA hybridization. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Yoo, J. H., J. H. Choi, W. S. Shin, D. H. Huh, Y. K. Cho, K. M. Kim, M. Y. Kim, and M. W. Kang. 1999. Application of infrequent-restriction-site PCR to clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Serratia marcescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:3108–3112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Zanetti, G., D. S. Blanc, I. Federli, W. Raffoul, C. Petignat, P. Maravic, P. Francioli, and M. M. Berger. 2007. Importation of Acinetobacter baumannii into a burn unit: a recurrent outbreak of infection associated with widespread environmental contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 28:723–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and HygieneUniversity of CologneGermany

Personalised recommendations