Advertisement

US Army Experience with Acinetobacter in Operation Iraqi Freedom

  • Clinton Murray
  • Paul T. Scott
  • Kim A. Moran
  • David W. Craft
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Introduction

During Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), over 21,000 United States military personnel have been wounded in action of which 10,533 were medically evacuated and did not return to duty within 72 hours of their injury (www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf; accessed 17 November 2006). Forward surgical assets, rapid evacuation to medical care, and body armor have resulted in greater number of casualties surviving their initial injury. Traditionally, 65% of US casualties’ injuries are of an orthopedic nature during every major conflict from World War I to Vietnam (FitzHarris and Hetz, 2004). One study of OIF casualties evaluated at a medical facility without surgical capability over a 9-month period after the completion of major ground combat operations showed approximately 7% of the provided medical care involved patients wounded in action (WIA) with predominately extremity wounds (Murray et al., 2005). Twelve percent of wounds were due to...

Keywords

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Acinetobacter Baumannii Field Hospital Operation Iraqi Freedom Walter Reed Army Medical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aarabi B, Causes of infections in penetrating head wounds in the Iraq-Iraq War. Neurosurgery 1989;25:923–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aarabi B. Comparative study of bacteriological contamination between primary and secondary exploration of missile head wounds. Neurosurgery 1987;20:610–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht M, Griffith M, Murray C, Chung K, Horvath E, Ward J, Hospenthal D, Holcomb J, Wolf S. Impact of Acinetobacter Infection on the mortality of burn patients. J Am College Surg 2006;203:546–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anstey NM, Currie BJ, Hassell M, Palmer D, Dwyer B, Seifert H. Community-acquired bacteremic Acinetobacter pneumonia in tropical Australia is caused by diverse strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, with carriage in the throat in at-risk groups. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40(2):685–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold K, Cutting RT. Causes of death in United States Military personnel hospitalized in Vietnam. Mil Med 1978;143:161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aronson NE, Sanders JW, Moran KA. In harm’s way: infections in deployed American military forces. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:1045–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumann P. Isolation of Acinetobacter from soil and water. J Bacteriol 1968;96(1):39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ABC infections among patients at military medical facilities treating injured U.S. service members, 2002–2004. MMWR 2004;53:1063–1066.Google Scholar
  9. Chastre J. Infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii in the ICU. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2003;24(1):69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiang WC, Su CP, Hsu CY, et al. Community-acquired bacteremic cellulitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. J Formos Med Assoc 2003;102(9):650–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. FitzHarris J, Hetz S, eds. Emergency war surgery. Third United States Revision. Washington DC: DOD, USAMEDD Center and School, Borden Institute 2004;1.1–1.4.Google Scholar
  12. Fleming A. On the bacteriology of septic wounds. The Lancet 1915;2:638–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottlieb T, Barnes DJ. Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia. Aust N Z J Med 1989;19(3):259–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffith ME, Ceremuga J, Ellis MW, Hospenthal DR, Murray CK. Acinetobacter skin colonization in US Army Soldiers. Infect Control Hosp Epi 2006a;27:659–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffith ME, Ellis MW, Murray CK. Nares colonization of healthy soldiers with Acinetobacter. Infect Control Hosp Epi 2006b;27:787–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawley JS, Murray CK, Griffith ME, McElmeel ML, Fulcher LC, Hospenthal DR, Jorgensen JH 2007. Susceptibility of Acinetobacter isolated from deployed US military personnel. Antimicrob Agents Chemother pp 376–378.Google Scholar
  17. Heggers JP, Barnes ST, Robson MC, Ristroph JS, Omer GE. Microbial flora of orthopedic war wounds. Mil Med 1969;134:602–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hujer KM, Hujer AM, Hulten EA, et al. Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter sp. Isolates from Military and Civilian Patients Treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Dec;50(12):4114–4123. Epub 2006 Sep 25.Google Scholar
  19. Jacob E, Setterstrom JA. Infection in war wounds: experience in recent conflicts and future considerations. Mil Med 1989;154:311–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Klein RS, Berger SA, Yekutiel. Wound infection during the Yon Kippur War: observations concerning antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy. Ann Surg 1975;182:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kovaric JJ, Matsumoto T, Dobek AS, Hamit HF. Bacterial flora of one hundred and twelve combat wounds. Mil Med 1968;133:622–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Landman D, Quale JM, Mayorga D, et al. Citywide clonal outbreak of multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Brooklyn, NY: the pre-antibiotic era has returned. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(13):1515–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lin DL, Kirk KL, Murphy KP, McHale KA, Doukas WC. Evaluation of orthopedic injuries in Operation Enduring Freedom. J Orthop Trauma 2004;18:300–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matsumoto T, Wyte SR, Moseley RV, Hawley RJ, Lackey GR. Combat surgery in communication zone I. war wound and bacteriology (preliminary report). Mil Med 1969;134:655–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Murray CK, Reynolds JC, Schroeder JM, Harrison MB, Evans OM, Hospenthal DR. Spectrum of care provided at an Echelon II medical unit during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Mil Med 2005;170:516–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Murray CK, Roop SA, Hospenthal DR, Dooley DP, Wenner K, Hammock J, Taufen N, Gourdine E. Bacteriology of war wounds at the time of injury. Mil Med 2006a;171:826–829.Google Scholar
  27. Murray CK, Yun HC, Griffith ME, Hospenthal DR, Tong MJ. Acinetobacter- what was the true impact during the Vietnam conflict? Clin Infect Dis 2006b;43:383–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. PulseNet Protocols. (Accessed 9 Mar 2006, at www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/protocols.htm.)
  29. Scott P, Hulten E, Deye G, et al. An Outbreak of Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in the U.S. Military Healthcare System Associated with Military Operations in Iraq. Clin Inf. Dis, 2007;44:1577–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Talbot, G. H., J. Bradley, J. E. Edwards, D. Gilbert, M. Scheld, and J. G. Bartlett. Bad bugs need drugs: an update on the development pipeline from the antimicrobial availability task force of the infectious disease society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2006;42:657–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tong MJ. Septic complications of war wounds. JAMA 1972;219:1044–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Turton AF, Kaufman ME, Gill MJ, et al. 2006 Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States That Were Associated with Repatriated Casualties of the Iraq Conflict. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:2630–2634.Google Scholar
  33. Yun HC, Murray CK, Roop SA, Hospenthal DR, Gourdine E, Dooley DP. Bacteria recovered from patients admitted to a deployed U.S. military hospital in Baghdad, Iraq. Mil Med 2006;171:821–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zouris JM, Walker J, Dye J, Galarneau M. Wounding patterns for U.S. Marines and sailors during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Major Combat phase. Mil Med 2006;171:246–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clinton Murray
    • 1
  • Paul T. Scott
    • 1
  • Kim A. Moran
    • 1
  • David W. Craft
    • 1
  1. 1.Commander

Personalised recommendations