Integrating Multiple Spatial Controls and Temporal Sampling Schemes To Explore Short- and Long-Term Ecosystem Response to Fire in an Everglades Wetland

  • ShiLi Miao
  • Susan Carstenn
  • Cassondra Thomas
  • Chris Edelstein
  • Erik Sindhøj
  • Binhe Gu


Ecosystem and landscape studies are often faced with less than ideal, large-scale scenarios which are challenged by traditional approaches to experimental design and analysis, primarily because these studies can not be adequately replicated and are confronted by multiple spatial and temporal scales of variation. Variations in parameter and response time further complicate experimental design and data analysis. Rather than struggle with controlling or minimizing the influence of spatial and temporal variation via statistically required replication, we employed BACI and BACIPS designs and applied multiple spatial-scale controls and unbalanced temporal sampling schemes to account for the spatial and temporal structure of the studied system. This multiple-scale design allowed us to assess both pulsed and sustained responses of critical ecosystem processes to a prescribed fire in a nutrient-enriched wetland. A series of regression approaches and confidence intervals were employed to estimate onset, duration, and magnitude of post-fire ecosystem responses. This chapter describes a powerful approach for studying ecosystem disturbance including issue identification, experimental design, data analysis and interpretation, and management recommendations.


Control Site Prediction Interval Response Period Prescribe Fire Distant Control 
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We thank the South Florida Water Management District for supporting the Fire project and Hawaii Pacific University for providing release time for S. Carstenn. We greatly appreciate many former (D. Pisut, H. Chen, J. Creasser, D. Salembier, M. Tapia, and D.Condo) and current members (Robert Johnson, Christina Stylianos, D. Monette) of the Fire project team who conducted field samplings. We thank C. Stow, D. Hui, J. Hewitt, J. Grace, S. Hill, M. Nungesser and D. Drum for their valuable comments on early drafts of the chapter. S.L. Miao contributed to overall idea, structure, and preparation of the manuscript; S.Carstenn contributed to analysis of moving regression and manuscript preparation; C. Thomas conducted BACI-ANOVA analyses related to control similarity and control numbers for detecting fire impacts; C. Edelstein was responsible for field setup and sampling, data management and figure and table creation; E. Sindhøj developed the model for nutrient pool analysis used in the synthesis section and contributed to manuscript preparation; and Binhe Gu contributed to the development of the nutrient pool analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • ShiLi Miao
    • 1
  • Susan Carstenn
    • 2
  • Cassondra Thomas
    • 3
  • Chris Edelstein
    • 4
  • Erik Sindhøj
    • 5
  • Binhe Gu
    • 6
  1. 1.South Florida Water Management District, TA Management DivisionWest Palm BeachUSA
  2. 2.Hawai’i Pacific University, College of Natural SciencesKaneoheUSA
  3. 3.TBE GroupWest Palm BeachUSA
  4. 4.Stormwater DepartmentCity of GriffinUSA
  5. 5.Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural SciencesSE-750 07 UppsalaSweden
  6. 6.Everglades DivisionSouth Florida Water Management DistrictWest Palm BeachUSA

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